AMTA Paper Archive
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FSS-Loaded Pyramidal Absorber
This paper describes a new approach to improving the low frequency reflectivity performance of geometric transition radar absorbent materials through the use of impedance loading in the form of one or more included FSS layers. The discussion includes theoretical predictions and measured data on modified commercially available RAM which confirm the validity of the concept.
Considerations for RCS Measurements over the Ocean
Techniques for measuring the radar cross section (RCS) of a target in a controlled environment are well known and established and many commercial systems are available for making these measurements. However, when RCS measurements need to be taken in a variable environment – such as over the ocean – several important issues are introduced that need to be carefully considered before a meaningful measurement can be made. This paper shall discuss some of these issues and present a measurement approach that appears to reduce the uncertainty that these factors introduce.
The Blue Airborne Target Signatures (BATS) Database
This paper discusses the Blue Airborne Target Signatures (BATS) database. BATS is the United States Air Force central repository for US and allied signature data. It resides at and is maintained by the Signatures Element, 453rd Electronic Warfare Squadron, Air Force Information Warfare Center, Lackland AFB TX. BATS contains radar cross section (RCS), infrared (IR), and antenna pattern (AP) data, both measured and simulated. The history and background of BATS is also presented, as well as current activities.
Design Issues for a maverick RCS Instrumentation Radar
This paper describes the motivation and major issues related to the design of an RCS radar instrumentation system for use in a compact range. The high degree of sophistication implemented in commercially-available radar systems renders them subject to significant MTTR (mean time to repair) with corresponding losses in range productivity. The objective of the design effort was to develop a system of minimal complexity, maximally suited to troubleshooting and repair by laboratory personnel, while retaining the operational efficiency normally provided by the commercial systems.
Low-Cost, High Resolution X-Band Laboratory Radar System for Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications
Using a discarded garage door opener, an old cordless drill, and a collection of surplus microwave parts, a high resolution X-band linear rail synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system was developed for approximately $240 material cost. Entry into the field of radar cross section measurements or SAR algorithm development is often difficult due to the cost of high-end precision pulsed IF or other precision radar test instruments. The low cost system presented in this paper is a frequency modulated continuous wave radar utilizing a homodyne radar architecture. Transmit chirp covers 8 GHz to 12.4 GHz with 15 dBm of transmit power. Due to the fairly wide transmit bandwidth of 4.4 GHz, this radar is capable of approximately 1.4 inches of range resolution. The dynamic range of this system was measured to be 60 dB thus providing high sensitivity. The radar system traverses a 96 inch automated linear rail, acquiring range profiles at any user defined spacing. SAR imaging results prove that this system could easily image objects as small as pushpins and 4.37 mm diameter steel spheres.
Cross-Polarization Parameters in the Presence of Drift in Radar Cross Section Measurements
We use a rotating dihedral to determine the cross-polarization ratios of radar cross section measurement systems. Even a small amplitude drift can severely degrade the calibration accuracy, since the calibration relies on accurate determination of polarimetric data over a large dynamic range. We show analytically how drift introduces errors into the system parameters, and outline an analytic procedure to minimize the in.uence of drift to estimate system parameters with greater accuracy. We show that only very limited information about the drift is needed to provide measured system parameters accurate to second order in the error-free parameters. Higher-order accuracies can be achieved by using more detailed information about the drift. We use simulations to explain and illustrate the analytic development of this theory. We also show that, using cross-polarimetric measurements on a cylinder, we can recover the exact system parameters. These .ndings show that we can now calibrate polarimetric radar cross section systems without the large uncertainties that can be introduced by drift.
A Partial Rotation Formulation of the Circular Near Field-to-Far Field Transformation (CNFFFT)
For many years now, General Dynamics has described the development, characterization, and performance of an image-based circular near-field-to-far-field transformation (CNFFFT) for predicting far-field radar cross-section (RCS) from near-field measurements collected on a circular path around the target. In this paper, we consider the CNFFFT algorithm as an azimuthal filtering process and develop a formulation capable of transforming data that is not measured over a full 360º. Such a formulation has applications in measurement scenarios where collection of a complete rotation is not practical. As part of the development, we provide guidelines for the near-field data support required to achieve a desired accuracy in the sub-360º CNFFFT result. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate that the results of this partial-rotation formulation are consistent with the full-circle CNFFFT results presented in past papers.
Optimization of Large Compact Range Reflector Installation and Verification Methodology
A large rolled edge compact range system featuring a 12’H x 16’W quiet zone has been designed, fabricated, installed, and tested in a large aerospace test facility. During the program, a high precision alignment methodology was utilized in conjunction with electromagnetic prediction capability to verify both mechanical and electrical performance while still under trial assembly conditions at the factory. A coherent laser radar (CLR) was utilized to measure the reflector surface on a very fine grid, and the electromagnetic (EM) quiet zone performance was calculated from the raw CLR data using a Physical Optics (PO) model. Despite extremely high surface accuracy of the panels, this evaluation methodology highlighted systematic alignment errors in the reflector system, and guided the process of correcting these errors to achieve a final factory verification assembly for the entire 20’H x 24’W reflector system of better than 0.001” over the quiet zone section of the reflector, and 0.004” rms over the entire reflector. This procedure was also utilized for the on-site installation to achieve alignment of the reflector to an AUT positioning system using the CLR, as the positioning system and chamber were already existing and operational. Thus, it was required to align the reflector to the positioning system, and not the positioning system to the reflector as is usually the case. A unique vertical carousel feed system was also aligned using this procedure. Predicted EM results were again used to finalize alignment on site prior to quiet zone field probe evaluation. This paper summarizes the overall alignment and EM evaluation process, and presents results for the installed compact range reflector system.
A Theoretical Model of a Lossy Dielectric Slab for the Characterization of Radar System Performance Specifications
Some radar applications require a system to acquire range profile or S11 network analyzer data through a lossy dielectric layer to measure something behind that lossy dielectric layer. It is often difficult to specify the dynamic range requirements of such a system due to the “flash” of initial reflected transmitted energy from the lossy dielectric layer. It is also difficult to determine the most effective architecture for such a system, such as pulse IF, ultra-wideband impulse, FMCW, or another more exotic architecture. In this paper a theoretical model is developed of a lossy dielectric layer, a radar transmitter and receiver, and a standard radar target on the other side of the lossy dielectric layer. The theoretical results from this model provide insight into the dynamic range requirements for any radar system that must acquire range profile data or S11 network analyzer data through a lossy dielectric of any permeability, permittivity, and conductivity at any microwave or RF frequency range in order to measure something behind that lossy dielectric layer.
EM Propagation in Jet Engine Turbines
There is interest in the propagation of EM signals inside jet engine turbines for a number of reasons. Applications include radar scattering phenomenology and jet engine plasma plume formation studies. In our research, we are interested in the communication channel characteristics for micro-size wireless sensors attached to the turbine blades that measure parameters such as strain and temperature. Propagation measurements were performed on both F-16 (F-110) and Boeing 747 (CF6-50) turbines. The frequency band extended from 2 to 20 GHz (wavelengths longer than the turbine blades to wavelengths shorter than the gap between turbine blades). Signals were propagated with both radial and circumferential polarization. Both transmission and scattering measurements were made from both the inlet and the outlet. We also used small probe antennas inserted in boreholes between turbine stages. A range of blade positions were included. We will show the propagation characteristics as a function of polarization, frequency and time (UWB time domain transformations). We will also show the internal radar reflection characteristics of the turbine as a function of various stator blade rotation angles. Comparisons with a hybrid mathematical propagation model will be given.
Time domain Planar Near-Field Measurement Simulation
The UWB radar operates simultaneously over large bandwidth and the antenna parameters must refer to simultaneous performance over the whole of the bandwidth. Conventional frequency domain (FD) parameters like pattern, gain, etc. are not adequate for UWB antenna. This paper describes an UWB radar antenna planar near field (PNF) measurement system under construction to get the impulse response or transient characteristic of the UWB antenna. Unlike the conventional antenna or RCS time domain test system, the UWB radar signal instead of the carrier-free short time pulse was used to excite the antenna that can avoid the decrease of the dynamic range and satisfy the needs of SAR and the other UWB radar antennas measurement. In order to demonstrate the data analysis program, FDTD simulation software was used to calculate the E-field of M×N points in a fictitious plane at different times just like the actual oscilloscope’s sampling signals in the time domain planar near field (TDPNF) measurement. The calculated results can be considered the actual oscilloscope’s sampling output signals. Through non-direct frequency domain near field to far field transform and direct time domain near field to far field transform, we get the almost same radiation patterns comparing to the FD measurements and software simulation results. At last, varied time windows were used to remove the influences of the non-ideal measurement environment.
The RCS Calibration Uncertainty of Balloon Tethered Spheres For Outdoor RCS Measurement Systems
Hollow metallic aluminum spheres have been used for years for calibrating RCS measurement systems both indoors and outdoors. While many previous papers have identified the RCS calibration shortfalls associated with spheres [1,2], most of these papers have concentrated on indoor RCS measurement systems, where there exist a number of accurate calibration alternatives to spheres, including the so-called "squat cylinder" [3,4]. For outdoor free space RCS measurement systems, especially those designed to measure dynamically moving or changing targets, (i.e. the NASA Shuttle C-Band Debris Radar), calibration is a much tougher problem. Frequently, spheres are used to calibrate such systems, by releasing and tracking a sphere attached to a lighter-than-air balloon, or by tethering a sphere to a lighter-than -air balloon and allowing it to float through a fixed radar beam. Recently, the Air Force Research Laboratory Mobile Diagnostic Laboratory (MDL) had the opportunity to measure the clutter and uncertainty associated with balloon tethered Sphere RCS calibrations. Two spheres were measured suspended by various string types and a line under an 8 ft. diameter tethered Helium filled balloon. We will provide design guidance, signal processing techniques and measurement uncertainty to help minimize the clutter and error induced by balloon borne RCS calibration spheres.
The device of the embedded control of parameters of the microwave feeder of airborne radar
A device and algorithm of measuring of microwave airborne radar antenna impedance and input power level are presented. A compact five-port microwave reflectometer, p-i-n diodes switch, single microwave detector are used. The output detector signal is processed. All of that results in decreasing of the cost of equipment, elimination of instrument components non-ideality and reaching of high equipment accuracy.
Characterization of Passive UHF RFID Tag Performance
This paper deals with characterization of passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) tag performance. Tag’s energy harvesting properties and the significance of the backscattered signal strength and radar cross section (RCS) of the tag are discussed using two examples: dipole tag antennas of various widths and identification of industrial paper reels.
Dynamic Radar Cross Section and Radar Doppler Measurements of Commercial General Electric Windmill Power Turbines; Part 1 - Predicted and Measured Radar Signatures
Commercial windmill driven power turbines (“Wind Turbines”) are expanding in popularity and use in the commercial power industry since they can generate significant electricity without using fuel or emitting carbon dioxide “greenhouse gas”. In-country and near-off shore wind turbines are becoming more common on the European continent, and the United States has recently set long term goals to generate 10% of national electric power using renewable sources. In order to make such turbines efficient, current 1.5 MW wind turbine towers and rotors are very large, with blades exceeding 67 meters in diameter, and tower heights exceeding 55 meters. Newer 4.5 MW designs are expected to be even larger. The problem with such large, moving metallic devices is the potential interference such structures present to an array of civilian air traffic control radars. A recent study by the Undersecretary of Defense for Space and Sensor Technology acknowledged the potential performance impact wind turbines introduce when sited within line of site of air traffic control or air route radars. . In the Spring of 2006, the Air Force Research Laboratory embarked on a rigorous measurement and prediction program to provide credible data to national decision makers on the magnitude of the signatures, so the interference issues could be credibly studied. This paper, the first of two parts, will discuss the calibrated RCS measurement of the turbines and compare this data (with uncertainty) to modeled data.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEAR FIELD/FAR FIELD CORRECTION
The DGA/CELAR (France) (Centre d'Electronique de l'Armement: French Center for Armament Electronics) is able to measure targets in order to get their RCS (Radar Cross Section). Yet CELAR RCS measurement facilities are not compact bases and therefore the measured field is a near field. This article proposes a solution allowing the transformation of this near field to a far field and this in the three dimensions of space without limiting any dimension with Fraunhöfer criterion. Thanks to this method the RCS of a target is able to be known in any direction of space and moreover the calculation of a three-dimensional ISAR (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar) picture is thus possible. At first the theoretic part of our work is presented. Then a fast method in order to calculate the transformation of a near field to a far field by optimising the calculation time thanks to signal processing theory is given. Finally obtained results from simulated bright points are presented.
THREE-DIMENSIONNAL RADAR IMAGING USING INTERFEROMETRY
The DGA/CELAR (France) (Centre d'Electronique de l'Armement: French Center for Armament Electronics) is able to measure targets in order to get their RCS (Radar Cross Section). Once this RCS is acquired it may be very interesting to calculate RADAR pictures of these targets because RADAR picture allows emphasizing the bright points. Until now, CELAR produced images in two dimensions, but these pictures have shown their limits in order to locate problems in altitude. This article fills this gap while proposing two methods in order to get an image in three dimensions: a method using a three-dimensional Fourier transform and a method based on interferometry.
Outdoor RCS Measurement Range for Spaceborne SAR Calibration Targets
The Microwaves and Radar Institute regularly performs calibration campaigns for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems, among which have been X-SAR, SRTM, and ASAR. Tight performance specifications for future spaceborne SAR systems like TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X demand an absolute radiometric accuracy of better than 1 dB. The relative and absolute radiometric calibration of SAR systems depends on reference point targets (i. e. passive corner reflectors and active transponders), which are deployed on ground, with precisely known radar cross section (RCS). An outdoor far-field RCS measurement facility has been designed and an experimental test range has been implemented in Oberpfaffenhofen to precisely measure the RCS of reference targets used in future X-band SAR calibration campaigns. Special attention has been given to the fact that the active calibration targets should be measured under the most realistic conditions, i. e. utilizing chirp impulses (bandwidth up to 500 MHz, pulse duration of 2 µs for a 300 m test range). Tests have been performed to characterize the test range parameters. They include transmit/receive decoupling, background estimation, and two different amplitude calibrations: both direct (calibration with accurately known reference target) and indirect (based on the radar range equation and individual characteristics). Based on an uncertainty analysis, a good agreement between both methods could be found. In this paper, the design details of the RCS measurement facility and the characterizing tests including amplitude calibration will be presented.
Rapid Spherical in SITU Near-Field Antenna Test System for Radar Aircraft Testing
Till recently, the testing of installed aircraft radars antennas and radomes required the dismantle of the units from the aircraft in order to measure theirs electromagnetic properties inside a classical anechoic chamber. Such operations were difficult, particularly time consuming and did not fully characterize the antenna within its operational environment. For these reasons, ELTA issued a request for an “in situ” spherical near-field test system that could be used for “on board testing of radars” located inside the nose of an aircraft. SATIMO responded with a solution based on its own proprietary rapid probe array technology already employed extensively worldwide for antenna testing. The facility was recently delivered to ELTA and “in-situ” measurement of a radar antenna and radome were performed (fig.1&2). This new generation of test system performs multi-beam, multi port and multi-frequency dual polarized complex measurements at a step of 3-degree in azimuth and elevation over a full hemisphere in a few minutes. It is fully autonomous and mobile so it can be used indifferently indoor or outdoor. Continuous wave or pulsed electromagnetic measurements are obtained thanks to an advanced software which allows the user to control the main radar parameters. Diagnostic of faulty elements in the radar is also possible through a special automated measurement mode. The antenna test system has been completed and validated through a detailed acceptance test plan including inter comparison with a traditional planar near field test range. This paper presents the general design consideration and a summary of the results of the extensive verification tests.
Measurement of System Dynamic Range in the Time Domain
The dynamic range of a measurement system is typically evaluated in the frequency domain. However, for radar-cross-section (RCS) measurements, time processing of the frequency-domain data is often utilized to determine the temporal or spatial (down-range) location of responses. Dynamic range in the time domain is thus of considerable importance in determining what range of responses can be resolved and identified. While the coherent integration inherent in the pulse-compression process can increase the time-domain dynamic range beyond that of the frequency-domain, non-linearity in the measurement system leads to signal-dependent noise which, in turn, limits the time-domain dynamic range to a much smaller value. Thus, specification and characterization of time-domain dynamic range is critical for understanding the linearity requirements and the time-domain capability of the measurement system. This paper reviews design considerations, error sources, and measurement methods relevant to optimizing dynamic range in the time domain. Examples of time-domain measurements are included.
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