AMTA Paper Archive

 

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Radar
Progress in adaptive radar absorbing materials
B. Chambers,A.P. Anderson, P.V. Wright, T.C.P. Wong, November 1995
Possible mechanisms and structures for realising a dynamically adaptive radar absorbing material (DARAM) are discussed and their potential evaluated through computer simulation. Some pointers towards practical implementation are outlined and measured results for large-area DARAM panels operating over I and J bands are shown.
Unique antenna measurement test article platform for validation of computational electromagnetic models and algorithms
D. Warren,D.R. Pflug, T.W. Blocher, November 1995
A novel test article, the Transformable Scale Aircraft-Like Model (TSAM), which holds great promise for validating complex computational electromagnetic (CEM) codes more effectively is described. The novelty of TSAM is in the use of removable/replaceable canonical shaped structural components. The complexity in TSAM can be tailored to the modeling capabilities of the CEM code under test allowing discrepancies between measurement and simulation to be more explainable. A set of preliminary measurements on TSAM have been made and the results compared to calculations from the General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) program (1), a standard CEM code.
Accurate boresighting and gain determination techniques
M.A.J. van de Griendt,S.C. van Someren Greve, V.J. Vokurka, November 1995
Boresight and gain determination play an important role in antenna measurements. Traditionally, on outdoor ranges, optical methods are used to determine the boresight. Accuracy requirements better than 0.001 degrees are difficult if not impossible to obtain on outdoor ranges using these method since the effect of incident electromagnetic fields are not taken into account. On indoor ranges no technique is available at present that achieves the desired accuracy demands. In this paper, an improved method for boresighting will be presented. It will be shown that using this technique, desired accuracy demands on both outdoor and indoor can be obtained. Furthermore, the method can also be combined with accurate gain calibration. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique will be discussed.
Inverse synthetic aperture imaging studies of a ship at X-band
E. Walton,I.J. Gupta, L. Cai, November 1995
Techniques for the X-band inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a naval ship at sea are presented. We show that the longer the observation time (and thus the angle span), the better the image until a limit based on the pitch roll and yaw motion of the ship is reached. A Fourier transformation ISAR algorithm will be shown and a modified hybrid algorithm will be demonstrated using autoregressive spectral estimation. A hybrid algorithm based on data extrapolation obtained using FBLP coefficients will be demonstrated. Specific motion compensation tradeoffs will also be discussed.
State-of-the-art near-field measurement system
K. Haner,G. Masters, November 1995
Planar near-field measurements are the usual choice when testing phased array antennas. NSI recently delivered a large state-of-the-art near­ field measurement system for testing a multi­ beam, solid state phased-array antenna. The critical sidelobe and beam pointing accuracy specifications for the antenna required that special attention be paid to near-field system design. The RF path to the moving probe was implemented using a multiple rotary joint system to minimize phase errors. Additional techniques used to minimize system errors were an optical probe position correction system and a Motion Tracking Interferometer (MTI) for thermal drift correction.
Interferometric techniques for discriminating multipath in ground to ground radar diagnostics with minimal constraints on collection geometry
L. Cech,C. Clarke, G. Fliss, J. Steinbacher, T. Coveyou, T. Kornbau, W. Nagy, November 1995
Due to inherent cost, safety and logistical advan­ tages over dynamic measurements, Ground-to-Ground (G2G, aircraft and radar on tarmac) diagnostic radar measurements may be the preferred method of assessing aircraft RCS for signature maintenance. However, some challenging complications can occur when interpreting SAR imagery from these systems. For example, the effect of ground induced multi-path often results in the measurement of a significantly different image based RCS than would have been obtained by a comparable Ground-to-Air (G2A) or Air-to-Air (A2A) system. Although conventional 2-D SAR images are useful in determining the physical source (down-range/cross­ range) of scatterers, it is difficult at best to deduce whether an image pixel is a result of direct (desired) or ground induced multi-path (undesired) scattering. ERIM and MRC recently completed an experiment testing the utility of collecting and processing interfero­ metric (2-antenna) SAR radar data. This effort produced not only high resolution SAR imagery, but also a com­ panion data set, derived from interferometric phase, which helps to isolate the source (direct or multi-path) of all scattering within the SAR image. Additionally, the data set gives a measure of the physical height of direct scatterers on the target. This paper outlines the experiment performed on a RCS enhanced F-4 aircraft using a van mounted radar. Conventional high resolution imagery (down-range/ cross-range/intensity) will be shown along with down­ range/height/intensity and cross-range/height/intensity images. The paper will also describe the processing pro­ cedure and present analysis on the interferometric results. The unique motion compensation processing technique combining prominent point and motion mea­ surement instrumentation data, eliminates the need for a tightly controlled collection path (e.g. bulky rail sys­ tems). This allows data to be collected with the van driven somewhat arbitrarily around the target with side mounted antennas taking measurements at desired aspects.
Methods for enhancing the utility and performance of coherent background subtraction
J. Burns,G. Fliss, M.A. Ricoy, November 1995
Coherent background subtraction is an established method of reducing additive range clutter in radar cross­ section measurements. In some measurement situations, it is neither practical nor convenient to directly make a coherent measurement of the range background. The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan has devel­ oped two methods of synthesizing background measure­ ments for the coherent subtraction of additive clutter in these cases. The first method synthesizes a background for measurements of pylon-supported targets by remov­ ing unterminated pylon returns using software gating. The second method improves background subtraction by compensating for phase drift between target and back­ ground measurements. In this paper, these methods of improving the performance and utility of background subtraction will be described and demonstrated on mea­ sured data.
Frequency dependent scattering effects on Fourier domain imaging of ultra-wideband data
G. Fliss,S. Li-Fliss, November 1995
Forming radar images from large fractional band­width data can often lead to unusual artifacts or resolutions degraded from "expected" theoretical point-target values. The frequency dependencies of typical scatter­ ing mechanisms, such as diffractions, surface waves and speculars, can be significant over processing apertures when data are collected using large fractional bandwidth measurement systems. For example, it is well known that resonant scatterers exhibit blurring in the down­range direction of an image. Other scattering mechanisms have linear or quadratic amplitude dependencies which can also alter the impulse response from that of an ideal point scatterer. This paper will first provide a brief description of the frequency dependencies of various scattering mechanisms. The paper will then describe the corresponding effects seen in the impulse response, primarily in the range profile domain. Impulse response plots will be compared for data with large and small fractional band­widths. Lastly, the effects of frequency dependent scattering on the impulse response will be shown using images generated from data collected in indoor compact ranges.
Flexible high speed antenna measurement data acquisition system for the outdoor antenna range, A
J.S. DeRosa, November 1995
Rome Laboratory has recently designed and implemented a state of the art automated antenna measurement data acquisition system at the Rome Lab/Newport antenna test facility. A generalized approach to the antenna data acquisition hardware and software was implemented which allows sequencing, control and measurement of test variables in virtually any order without test specific software modifications. The hardware design is based on distributed computers in which real-time data acquisition tasks and near real-time operator control and data analysis tasks are performed independently. The computers operate in a remote client/server configuration in which control information and data are transferred via fiber optic local area network. In this paper, the fundamental approach to the data acquisition system design is discussed and the antenna measurement hardware and software that comprises the final system are described.
Polarimetric calibration of reciprocal-antenna radars
L.A. Muth,R. Lewis, R.C. Wittmann, November 1995
We discuss how RCS target depolariza­ tion enhances cross-polarization contamination, and we present a graphical study of measurement error due to depolarization by an inclined dihedral reflector. Error correction requires complete polarimetric RCS measure­ ments. We present a simple polarimetric calibration scheme that is applicable to reciprocal antenna radars. This method uses a dihedral calibration target mounted on a rotator. Because the calibration standard can be ro­ tated, there is no need to mount and align multiple sepa­ rate standards, and clutter and noise may be rejected by averaging over rotation angle.
System tradeoffs between stepped frequency and linear-FM chirped waveforms
W. Nagy, November 1995
Historically, radar imaging sensors have been divided into two categories, SAR and ISAR systems. Even though they are solving the same imaging prob­ lems the data collection environment is dramatically dif­ ferent between the two. Consequently, the particular waveforms selected for the two have been different. The primary waveform for ISAR RCS measurement systems is stepped frequency, while the FM-chirp (linear-FM) waveform has been used much more often in SAR applications. However, recently this boundary has been blurred, in that stepped frequency radars are being applied to long range dynamic measurements, long the domain of chirped waveforms, and conversely the chirped waveform has been applied to target RCS mea­ surements of both static and dynamic targets. This paper will address the system parameter tradeoffs involved in selecting between the two waveforms for two different applications; (i) near range static target imaging, and (ii) far range dynamic target imaging. The system parameter tradeoffs involve RF bandwidth, PRF, scene size, trans­ mitter power, doppler frequency spread of target, etc. The advantages, disadvantages, and inherent limitations of each waveform will be analyzed to yield a better understanding of the tradeoffs involved, and the data collection examples will further illustrate these tradeoffs for the two specific applications.
Integrating diagnostic imaging radar into development and production programs
R. Harris, November 1995
Radar cross section measurements must be performed in a wide variety of situations throughout development of a new vehicle. In these days of smaller budgets, it is vitally important that the right things get measured, at the right time in the program, with the right accuracy, and that these measurements be integrated into the development process in the right way. After delivery, the measurement system must be confidently usable by the user organization, with a minimum of outside to ensure that the vehicle is maintained. Many of the key programs in this area were begun before modern measurement technology was known to be capable of providing detailed diagnostic measurements. Consequently, specifications did not consider what can be easily measured with today's modern diagnostic radars. This paper addresses how mcxlern diagnostic radar cross section measurements can be exploite4:l to make the specification, development, pnxluction, and testing phases much more efficient than they have been in the past.
Inverse synthetic aperture imaging studies of a ship at X-band
E. Walton,I.J. Gupta, L. Cai, November 1995
Techniques for the X-band inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a naval ship at sea are presented. We show that the longer the observation time (and thus the angle span), the better the image until a limit based on the pitch roll and yaw motion of the ship is reached. A Fourier transformation ISAR algorithm will be shown and a modified hybrid algorithm will be demonstrated using autoregressive spectral estimation. A hybrid algorithm based on data extrapolation obtained using FBLP coefficients will be demonstrated. Specific motion compensation tradeoffs will also be discussed.
Architecture and algorithms for real-time ISAR imaging of dynamic targets
J. Trischman, November 1995
The Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division (NRaD) has been using a 500 MHz Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) radar to collect measurements of flying aircraft. These data have been used to generate high resolution Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) images of the targets [l]. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) hardware had been added to the radar and algorithms have been implemented to perform ISAR processing on the data in real time. A VME bus architecture has been developed to provide a scaleable, flexible platform to test and develop real-time processing software. Algorithms have been developed from a system model, and processing software has been implemented to perform pulse compression, motion compensation, polar reformatting, image formation, and target motion estimation.
New approach for modeling of radar signatures
M.R. van der Goot,V.J. Vokurka, November 1995
The identification of targets with radar is frequently based on a priori knowledge of the RCS characteristics of the target as a function of frequency and viewing angle. Due to the complex­ ity of most targets, it is difficult to predict their RCS signature accurately. Furthermore, complex and large reference libraries will be required for identification purposes. In most cases, a complete knowledge of the RCS is not required for successful identification. Instead, a target representation composed of the contributions of the main scattering centers of the target can be sufficient. This means that a corresponding target representation based on an estimation with Geometrical Optics (GO) or Physi­ cal Optics (PO) techniques will contain enough information for target identification purposes. In this paper, a new technique is described which is based on a reconstruction of the scattering centers. These are found at locations where the normal to the surface points in the direction of the angle of incidence. The RCS at these positions depends mainly on the local radii of curvature of the surface. Further­ more, PO and GO approximations are known as high-frequency techniques, assuming structures that are large compared to the wavelength. At low frequencies, which may be of interest for certain class of identification procedures, and for small physical radii of curvature, the RCS prediction is often difficult to determine numerically. Results from measurements show that this approach is also valid at lower frequencies for the classes of targets as mentioned, even for structures that are significantly smaller than the wavelength. As a consequence, it is expected that even complex targets can be represented adequately by the simplified model.
3-D processing and imaging of near field ISAR data in an arbitrary measurement geometry
C.U.S. Larsson,O. Luden, R. Erickson, November 1995
Near field inverse synthetic aperture radar 3D is performed utilizing data for arbitrary, but known, positioning of the target. The imaging method was implemented and is described. This straightforward approach has many advantages. It geometrically correct in near field. Field corrections can be independently for each frequency, antenna position and point of interest in the target volume. The main disadvantage is that the processing using the algorithm is very time consuming. However, in many cases it is only necessary to perform the analysis on a few cuts through the object volume.
Discrete implementation of an image-based algorithm for extrapolation of radar cross-section (RCS) from near-field measurements
I. LaHaie,E. LeBaron, November 1995
ERIM is currently investigating several near-field to far-field transfonnations (NFFFfs) for predicting the far-field RCS of targets from monostatic near-field measurements. Each of the techniques uses approximate­ tions and/or supporting information to overcome the need for the bistatic near-field data which is required to rigorously transfonn a target's scattered field from the near zone to the far zone. Our focus has been on spheri­ cal near-field scanning, since this type of collection geometry is most compatible with existing RCS ranges. One particular NFFFT is based on the reflectivity approximation commonly used in ISAR imaging to model the target scattering. This image-based NFFFT is the most computationally efficient technique under con­ sideration, because, despite its theoretical underpinnings, it does not explicitly require image fonnation as part of its implementation. This paper presents an efficient discrete implementation of the image-based NFFFT, along with numerically-simulated examples of its perfonnance. The advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. A simplified version which applies to high aspect ratio (length-to-height) targets and requires only a single great circle (waterline) data in the near field is also summarized.
Calibration of bistatic RCS measurements
N.T. Alexander,M.T. Tuley, N.C. Currie, November 1995
Calibration of monostatic radar cross section (RCS) measurements is a well-defined process that has been optimized through many years of theoretical investigation and experimental trial and error. On the other hand, calibration of bistatic RCS measurements is potentially a very difficult problem; the range of bistatic angles over which calibration must be achieved is essentially unlimited and devising a calibration target that will provide a calculable scattering solution over the required range of bistatic angles is difficult, particularly for cross-polarized measurements. GTRI has developed a solution for amplitude calibration of both co-polarized and cross-polarized bistatic RCS, as well as a bistatic phase-calibration procedure for coherent systems.
Interferometric techniques for discriminating multipath in ground to ground radar diagnostics with minimal constraints on collection geometry
L. Cech,C. Clarke, G. Fliss, J. Steinbacher, T. Coveyou, T. Kornbau, W. Nagy, November 1995
Due to inherent cost, safety and logistical advan­ tages over dynamic measurements, Ground-to-Ground (G2G, aircraft and radar on tarmac) diagnostic radar measurements may be the preferred method of assessing aircraft RCS for signature maintenance. However, some challenging complications can occur when interpreting SAR imagery from these systems. For example, the effect of ground induced multi-path often results in the measurement of a significantly different image based RCS than would have been obtained by a comparable Ground-to-Air (G2A) or Air-to-Air (A2A) system. Although conventional 2-D SAR images are useful in determining the physical source (down-range/cross­ range) of scatterers, it is difficult at best to deduce whether an image pixel is a result of direct (desired) or ground induced multi-path (undesired) scattering. ERIM and MRC recently completed an experiment testing the utility of collecting and processing interfero­ metric (2-antenna) SAR radar data. This effort produced not only high resolution SAR imagery, but also a com­ panion data set, derived from interferometric phase, which helps to isolate the source (direct or multi-path) of all scattering within the SAR image. Additionally, the data set gives a measure of the physical height of direct scatterers on the target. This paper outlines the experiment performed on a RCS enhanced F-4 aircraft using a van mounted radar. Conventional high resolution imagery (down-range/ cross-range/intensity) will be shown along with down­ range/height/intensity and cross-range/height/intensity images. The paper will also describe the processing pro­ cedure and present analysis on the interferometric results. The unique motion compensation processing technique combining prominent point and motion mea­ surement instrumentation data, eliminates the need for a tightly controlled collection path (e.g. bulky rail sys­ tems). This allows data to be collected with the van driven somewhat arbitrarily around the target with side mounted antennas taking measurements at desired aspects.
Method to quantify target-support interaction terms, A
J. Matis, November 1995
Target support interaction terms often drive Radar Cross Section Measurement limitations. These limitations are when mask needed information, or render interpretation difficult. Although support improvement is desirable and studied, there is a fundamental problem. Perhaps we can create a support that is 10 dB better than existing supports. The technology producing that improvement will usually be applicable to targets. Result: The same ratios recur. Modern instrumentation Radar possesses many acquisition agility's. Processing power currently available permits handling huge volumes of data. This paper studies evaluation and/or elimination of interaction terms using these agility's. Interactions within the test article are often significant. Controlled of this method would select and retain, or remove the terms.


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