AMTA Paper Archive
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A Generalized Method to Diagnose Faults in Antenna Arrays Using Neural Networks
A generalized method to diagnose a defective element of an antenna array using neural networks is presented. A defective element with no excitation is classified as on off faults (i.e., total failure) and with current variation from designed values are current magnitude and phase faults. A uniform linear array of 101 isotropic elements with half wave distance between them and 1 amp current excitation is considered. Complex deviation pattern is determined which is the difference between the measured radiation pattern of the array under normal condition and degraded radiation pattern of the array with any one defective element. One radial basis function neural network is trained with all possible angle values of deviation pattern to determine the number of the faulty element. Other radial basis function neural network is trained with all possible absolute value of deviation pattern to determine current in defective element. The trained network showed high success rate. Key words:-Artificial neural networks, Phased array, Radial basis function (RBF), Radiation pattern
Algorithmic Analysis of Adaptive Antenna Array for Directional Beam Forming with Error Minimization
Adaptive antenna has both the amplitude as well as phase (as weights) can be adapted optimally to get required Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation or directed beam forming. This paper tries to analyze state of the art criteria for Adaptive antenna, suppressing the interference in directions other than desired. We model the Uniform Linear array (ULA) based on simulations of various adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms. We list possible types of errors in brief. Element spacing and mutual coupling influence each other and affect the antenna element pattern. We formulate the array antenna that tries to reduce the error by optimally adjusting the weights. We make an attempt to model mutual coupling. A high precision array antenna can be designed keeping in mind error factors, optimum adjustment of the element interval and mutual coupling. An adaptive antenna optimal weight adjustment is discussed here. Key words: ULA, DOA, DBF.
Low Frequency Optimization of 72 Inch Absorbers
The purpose of this paper is to detail the process used to optimize the low frequency performance of 72 inch absorber. The loading optimization was required to provide enhanced performance of a twisted 72 inch absorber which was to be used in the building of a large aircraft test facility. The chamber performance requirements are over a frequency range of 30 MHz to 18 GHz. The chamber dimensions are 30 meters x 30 meters x 20 meters high. This chamber will be used to measure a variety of fighter aircraft for many EW scenarios. The mission of this facility is to “perform radiated immunity testing of aerospace vehicles with high electromagnetic field intensity, radiated emissions measurements, EMC testing, electronic warfare testing, antenna pattern testing”. Due to the broad frequency range and the fact that the chamber is desired to test both in the low frequency EMC domain and high frequency antenna measurements, an extremely broad band absorber material had to be developed and optimized. The use of ferrite hybrids was considered. Due to the roll off at microwave frequencies and the expense of such a high volume of materials, they were eliminated for cost and due to the limited performance in the 1-2 GHz frequency range. The ideal candidate is a 72 inch twisted pyramidal geometry. The standard loading of these materials is ideal for frequencies above 150 MHz.. The performance level in the 30 MHz to 150 MHz range is less than ideal. A design for the chamber was established with specific target performances required of the 72 inch absorbers. This paper describes the effort taken to optimize the loss properties of the dielectric foam to meet the target absorber performance required for the implementation of the design. Key Words: Absorber Measurements, Absorber Performance, Computer Modeling of Absorbers, Dielectric Properties of Absorber
Characterization of the PLANCK Radio Frequency Qualification Model and Preparations for Flight Model Tests
The measurement of the radiation patterns of the PLANCK Radio Frequency Qualification Model (RFQM) is one of the most important elements of the verification of the PLANCK telescope. PLANCK is one of the scientific missions of the European Space Agency and is devoted to observe the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, with unprecedented accuracy. The satellite payload consists of two state-of-the-art, cryogenically cooled instruments sharing a dual reflector telescope with 1.5 m aperture and covering the frequency range from 27 GHz to 1000 GHz. As a key part of the telescope verification logic, the radiation patterns of the RFQM has been measured in the Alcatel Alenia Space Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR) at four frequencies (30, 70, 100 and 320 GHz) using representative flight feed horns of the focal plane unit. This paper presents the test logic, the measured radiation patterns, the custom-made instrumentation set-up, the correction techniques used and the final link to the Flight Model verification.
Adaptive Array Based Antenna Pattern Correction Technique
Adaptive array based antenna pattern comparison technique is presented in this paper. In the method, the antenna pattern of the antenna under test (AUT) is measured several times at different positions in the quiet-zone. The corrected antenna pattern is obtained by taking a weighted average of the measured patterns. An array synthesis algorithm is used to obtain averaging weights at the different rotation angles of the AUT. In addition, the weights are adapted specifically for the AUT. The adaptive array correction technique is demonstrated in a hologram based compact antenna test range (CATR) at 310 GHz. The demonstration is based partly on the measurements and partly on the simulations. For verification, the accuracy provided by the method is compared to the accuracy provided by the uniform weighting.
UHF Relay Antenna Measurements On Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup
The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly hemispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.
B-1 Fully Integrated Data Link Program Measures Antenna Pattern and Isolation in Support of USAF Communication Systems Upgrade
Antenna pattern and isolation measurements for the B-1 Fully Integrated Data Link (FIDL) Program have been completed at the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Antenna Measurements Facility located near the AFRL Rome Research Site (RRS), Rome, NY. This combined satellite and airborne communications upgrade has been performed under the supervision of the B-1 Systems Group, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio. One eighth scale antenna patterns were collected on a far field range for new Link-16 antennas, a relocated VHF/UHF2/L-Band antenna and the new Satcom transmit antenna, while on a one eighth scale B-1 model. Antenna to antenna isolation measurements were performed with antennas mounted on a full scale front section of the B-1 airframe. The RF Technology Branch (IFGE) has developed techniques for evaluating the effects of airframe and external stores on the radiation pattern characteristics of antenna systems in a simulated flight environment. Data obtained in this manner is used to evaluate antenna radiation characteristics of antenna/systems without the requirement of an extensive flight test program. Using similar techniques, AFRL has developed procedures whereby precision measurements of isolation between aircraft mounted antennas can be accomplished. This paper will present how the measured data was obtained for the antennas involved in the FIDL upgrade.
Measuring "As Installed" Aircraft Antenna Patterns
Using software and measured receive power data from aircraft during flight test, the pattern of the installed antenna is derived and validated. During the test flight, data packets were continuously transmitted from an aircraft using the antenna under test. The aircraft flew a designated pattern having straight legs oriented at specific angles to the ground station. Throughout each of these legs the aircraft performed appropriate maneuvers to provide elevation pattern data. A ground station recorded the received data packet signal strength with GPS time tags. Position data of aircraft (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) was recorded with time tags. Satellite Tool Kit, (STK™), by Analytical Graphics Inc.  reproduces flight test conditions and calculates the predicted ground station receive power based on vector direction, range, and a theoretical pattern for the antenna under test. The result is a dynamic link budget and a graph plotting predicted received signal strength versus time. Overlaying the recorded ground station received signal strength with the predicted signal strength allows the correlation of the measured data to that calculated using the theoretical antenna pattern. Curves are presented which show correlation sufficient to validate pertinent portions of the theoretical antenna pattern.
Evaluation of Low-Cost Phased Array Antenna Design
In the early 1990's, Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) was able to acquire an unclassified phased-array antenna from the former Soviet Union. Since that time, GTRI personnel have analyzed the antenna for design features that enabled the production of low-cost phased-array antennas. Antenna pattern data collected on the GTRI planar near-field range of a working and errored antenna will be presented. Also, modeled antenna pattern data will be presented as a comparison to show the particular effects of the low-cost design versus an ideal antenna. Finally, the original control mechanism of the phased-array antenna will be analyzed and compared with a modern control mechanism developed by GTRI researchers. Control data for the original and new control systems was captured with a logic analyzer and will be presented for comparison.
Time domain Planar Near-Field Measurement Simulation
The UWB radar operates simultaneously over large bandwidth and the antenna parameters must refer to simultaneous performance over the whole of the bandwidth. Conventional frequency domain (FD) parameters like pattern, gain, etc. are not adequate for UWB antenna. This paper describes an UWB radar antenna planar near field (PNF) measurement system under construction to get the impulse response or transient characteristic of the UWB antenna. Unlike the conventional antenna or RCS time domain test system, the UWB radar signal instead of the carrier-free short time pulse was used to excite the antenna that can avoid the decrease of the dynamic range and satisfy the needs of SAR and the other UWB radar antennas measurement. In order to demonstrate the data analysis program, FDTD simulation software was used to calculate the E-field of M×N points in a fictitious plane at different times just like the actual oscilloscope’s sampling signals in the time domain planar near field (TDPNF) measurement. The calculated results can be considered the actual oscilloscope’s sampling output signals. Through non-direct frequency domain near field to far field transform and direct time domain near field to far field transform, we get the almost same radiation patterns comparing to the FD measurements and software simulation results. At last, varied time windows were used to remove the influences of the non-ideal measurement environment.
Full Sphere Far-Field Antenna Patterns Obtained Using a Small Planar Scanner and a Poly-Planar Measurement Technique
This paper presents an overview of work carried out in developing the probe-corrected, poly-planar near-field antenna measurement technique [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The poly-planar method essentially entails a very general technique for deriving asymptotic far-field antenna patterns from near-field measurements taken over faceted surfaces. The probe-corrected, poly-planar near-field to far-field transformation, consisting of an innovative hybrid physical optics (PO)  plane wave spectrum (PWS)  formulation, is summarised, and the importance of correctly reconstructing the normal electric field component for each of the discrete partial scans to the success of this process is highlighted. As an illustration, in this paper the poly-planar technique is deployed to provide coverage over the entire far-field sphere by utilising a small planar facility to acquire two orthogonal tangential near electric field components over the surface of a conceptual cube centred about the antenna under test (AUT). The success of the poly-planar technique is demonstrated through numerical simulation and experimental measurement. A discussion into the limitations of the partial scan technique is also presented.
Hemispherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements in an EMC Chamber Environment
Hemispherical Near-Field (NF) antenna measurement technique has been applied for automotive antenna testing within a chamber dedicated to EMC tests. An existing turntable was used for azimuth rotation of a vehicle and a new portable 90°arch was added for elevation scanning of the radiated NF of the Device Under Test (DUT - vehicle with the antenna). Two antenna types were tested during chamber commissioning, one for GPS and another for XM satellite radio applications at frequencies 1.57 and 2.33 GHz respectively. Test results have shown that the EMC chamber can be successfully used for automotive antenna measurements as well, with accuracies acceptable for automotive applications. For higher operating frequencies, the EMC absorbers must be changed to less reflective material. In the paper, the measurement system is described, and the test results are presented, as well as some considerations on far-field pattern restoration based on measured hemispherical NF data.
An Algorithm for Automated Phase Center Determination and its Implementation.
An efficient algorithm for calculating the position of the phase center of an antenna from a measurement is derived and implemented in software. Application of the algorithm to actual measurements shows that the success of the algorithm depends on characteristics of the antenna and a weighing parameter derived from the amplitude pattern.
RF CHARACTERIZATION OF OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA IN COMPACT ANTENNA TEST FACILITY
This paper describes the development of a test procedure for OMNI directional antenna pattern measurements in Compact Antenna Test Facility (CATF). This study is also of importance as it was presumed that OMNI directional antennas can not be tested in ISAC-CATF due to reflections coming from high-rise metallic structure of DUT positioner. As in ISAC-CATF, DUT positioner is not at all covered with the RF absorbers. Further, effect of Spacecraft body on radiation pattern is also studied. In addition to that effect of high-rise metallic structure of DUT positioner is also presented. It was observed that due to spacecraft body ripples were generated in the radiation pattern of OMNI directional antenna. It was also observed that effect of high-rise metallic structure of DUT positioner was not as significant as of Spacecraft body. At the end of this study, to exactly simulate the integrated spacecraft level condition a 33 dB coupler was connected at antenna output port and measurements were performed with the help of coupled port. Those results are also presented in this paper.
Conical Near-field Antenna Measurement System
A probe-compensated near-field-to-far-field transform algorithm has been developed that can generate far-field patterns from near-field measurements made on an arbitrary surface. We present the concept, the algorithm, and computer simulated and measured test results for measurements on a conical surface. The prototype conical near-field measurements were made in a planar near-field range on a horn antenna under test (AUT) mounted on an azimuth-over-elevation positioner to produce a conical measurement surface. This system is especially applicable for producing full-hemisphere far-field patterns for antennas mounted on vehicles where other standard measurement systems may not adapt to the profile well, may not provide full-hemisphere coverage, or may require large, mechanically complex systems.
Analysis of Interaction Factors For Active Wireless Devices
Traditional passive antenna measurements result in well-known quantities like Directivity, Efficiency, and Gain. However, when testing over-the-air (OTA) performance of active devices, there are additional effects that cannot be lumped together as part of the antenna performance. Terms like gain and efficiency are defined based on transmit or receive signal levels at the antenna port relative to the radiation pattern of the device. Thus, OTA performance is often assumed to be equivalent to the conducted performance of the device combined with the passive radiation pattern. However, when that antenna port is attached to an active radio in a typical wireless device, interactions between the circuitry and the antenna can produce results that do not match that predicted by the conducted performance and the passive radiation pattern. The difference between the predicted and actual performance of a device can be quantified in terms of "interaction factors", which represent the often non-linear behavior of the active circuitry when operating in an OTA environment. These factors include such effects as variation in amplifier gain due to heating caused by antenna mismatch, and receiver desensitization due to platform noise that couples through the antenna of the device. This paper will discuss the concept of interaction factors and define a number of sub-components of these factors that may be useful in predicting the level of some interaction factors.
Near field measurement errors due to neglecting probe cross-polarization
Calibration of planar near field probes is generally required to obtain accurate cross-polarization measurements of satellite antennas; however, probe calibration is costly and time consuming. One way to avoid probe calibration is to ignore the probe cross-polarization and use the probe co-polarized patterns alone for probe correction. Then the probe can be easily characterized by standard, in-house measurements or by analytical models. Of course, if the probe cross-polarization is ignored, additional errors are introduced in the co- and cross-polarized pattern measurements, but the errors can be manageable, depending on the probe and Antenna-Under-Test (AUT) polarization properties. Complete formulas and/or tables for near field measurement errors for three popular measurement configurations are presented, along with experimental verification of the error estimates for one case.
Neural Network Approach to Detect Multiple Faults in Antenna Arrays
A novel approach using Artificial Neural network (ANN) is proposed to identify the number of faulty elements present in a uniform linear array consisting faults in multiple elements. The input to the neural network is amplitude of deviation pattern and output is the number of faulty elements. In this work, ANN is implemented with three different algorithms; Radial Basis Function neural network (RBF), Generalised Regression neural network (GRNN) and Probabilistic neural network and their performance is compared. The network is trained with some of the possible faulty deviation patterns and tested with various measurement errors. It is demonstrated that the method gives a success rate of 93.4%.
Indoor Spherical 3D RDC Near-field Facility
Indoor RCS measurement facilities are usually dedicated to the characterization of only one azimuth cut and one elevation cut of the full spherical RCS target pattern. In order to perform more complete characterizations, a spherical experimental layout has been developed at CEA for indoor near field monostatic RCS assessment. The experimental layout is composed of a motorized rotating arch (horizontal axis) holding the measurement antennas. The target is located on a polystyrene mast mounted on a rotating positioning system (vertical axis). The combination of the two rotation capabilities allows full 3D near field monostatic RCS characterization. Two bipolarization monostatic RF transmitting and receiving antennas are driven by a fast network analyser : - an optimised phased array antenna for frequencies from 800 MHz to 1.8 GHz - a wide band standard gain horn from 2 GHz to 12 GHz. This paper describes the experimental layout and the numerical post processing computation of the raw RCS data. Calibrated RCS results of a canonical target are also presented and the comparison with compact range RCS measurements is detailed.
A LOWER FREQUENCY (UHF AND S-BAND) OPEN BOUNDARY QUADRIDGE HORN ANTENNA AND THE USE OF THE S TO Ku BAND HORN AS A FEED FOR REFLECTORS
The present paper introduces a lower frequency design for the open boundary quadridge horn (OBQH) introduced in . This new horn cover the UHF band and it is usable up to 6GHz. It exhibits a fairly uniform radiation pattern at the upper end of its range as well as a fairly flat gain as was the case with the higher frequency design. The increased frequency band up to 6GHz is accomplished by the use of a ferrite filled cavity that maintains a good VSWR even when the feed cavity is reduced to avoid higher order modes that cause the main beam of the pattern to split. As with the higher frequency design this horn can be used as a source in antenna pattern measurement chambers and even reflectors. As a second part to the paper some data is presented on the use of the S to Ku Band OBQH as a feed for reflectors used in Radio-Astronomy . The results show that by placing the OBQH in an absorber lined cavity the pattern improves and the feed becomes more effective.
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