AMTA Paper Archive

 

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Far Field
In flight VHF/UHF antenna pattern measurement technique for multiple antennas and multiple frequencies
J.S. DeRosa,D. Warren, November 1993
The Precision Airborne Measurement System (PAMS) is a flight test facility at Rome Laboratory which is designed to measure in-flight aircraft antenna patterns. A capability which provides antenna pattern measurements for multiple VHF and UHF antennas, at multiple frequencies, in a single flight, has recently been demonstrated. A unique half space VHF/UHF long periodic antenna is used as a ground receive antenna. Computerized airborne and ground instrumentation are used to provide the multiplexing capability. The new capability greatly reduces time and cost of flight testing. The design, construction, and calibration of the half-space log-periodic ground receiving antenna is discussed and the ground and airborne segments of the instrumentation are described.
Characterization and modelling of conducting polymer composites and their exploitation in microwave absorbing materials
B. Chambers,A.P. Anderson, P.V. Wright, T.C.P. Wong, November 1993
Composites of the electrically conducting polymer polypyrrole with paper, cotton cloth and polyester fabrics have been evaluated for use in radar absorbing structures. Reflectively measurements on the composites in the range 8-18 GHz and transmission line modelling have revealed impedance characteristics with a common transition region. Relationships between substrate material, polymer loading and electrical performance have been explored. Polarization characteristics have also been measured. The electrical model has been successful in predicting the performance of Salisbury screen and Jaumann multi-layer designs of RAM.
Antenna pattern measurement errors evaluation at the INTA compensated compact range
P.L. Garcia-Muller,J-L. Cano, November 1993
The plane wave quality of a compact range (CR) is usually specified in terms of the crosspolar level and the magnitude and phase ripple in the test zone. The way these deviations from the ideal plane wave affect the measurement of different antenna types can be treated by the application of the reciprocity principle between the transmitting and receiving antenna in a measurement set-up. By the application of the sampling theorem, it is found that the measured antenna pattern can be expressed as a summation of the plane wave spectrum components of the field at the test zone weighted by the true radiation pattern of the antenna under test (AUT) evaluated at the CR plane wave directions in the rotated coordinate system of the AUT. The inverse procedure can be used to extract the CR plane wave information (and therefore the CR field at the test zone by means of the Fourier series) from the measurement of a standard antenna with a known radiation pattern.
Design of triad steering antenna arrays for the testing of monopulse antenna seeker systems
J. Land, November 1993
This paper deals with the development of an approach to the design of triad steering antenna arrays which are used in anechoic chambers for hardware-in-the-loop testing of monopulse antenna seeker systems. In the design of a large array, such as those used for hardware-in-the-loop of guided weapons, it is important to optimize the array element spacing. An excessively narrow spacing results in an unreasonable number of required antennas and increased cost, while an excessively wide spacing will induce angle measurement errors in the seeker under test which can be significant. The specific objective of this effort is to quantitatively describe the monopulse discriminant efforts which result when a non-planar field, radiated by an antenna triad, illuminates a monopulse seeker under test. The approach to this problem is to calculate the triad field at the aperture of the monopulse seeker assuming various levels of triad element phase and amplitude error. Using this illumination field and the illumination function of the monopulse antenna, the resulting sum and difference patterns are calculated along with the monopulse discriminant. Software has been developed to perform these calculations. The resulting patterns are compared with the ideal far field pattern and the discriminant bias, or angle measurement error, is quantified.
Plane wave synthesis at Fresnel zone distances using ring arrays
J.P. McKay,Y. Rahmat-Samii, November 1993
A technique is presented for synthesizing a uniform plane wave at Fresnel zone distances. The method attempts to bridge the gap between compact range techniques and far field techniques, in the sense that one may potentially perform antenna or scattering measurements when a compact range reflector is electrically too small and the available far field range length is also too small. Similar to a far-field range, the distance to the test zone region generally varies with the side D of the test item and the frequency of operation being proportional to D2/X. Similar to a compact range, the test zone is confined to a localized region, and the quality of the test zone field does not improve with distance as it does for a far field range. The method is implemented by compensating the phase taper associated with a single radiator by employing a uniformly excited, concentric ring array. The quality and transverse extent of the test zone fields may be adjusted by varying the relative amplitude and phase excitation of the array. Syntheses of a test zone region characterized by a 1 dB amplitude ripple over 70% of the disk defined by the projected ring aperture is demonstrated.
Plane wave synthesis at Fresnel zone distances using ring arrays
J.P. McKay,Y. Rahmat-Samii, November 1993
A technique is presented for synthesizing a uniform plane wave at Fresnel zone distances. The method attempts to bridge the gap between compact range techniques and far field techniques, in the sense that one may potentially perform antenna or scattering measurements when a compact range reflector is electrically too small and the available far field range length is also too small. Similar to a far-field range, the distance to the test zone region generally varies with the side D of the test item and the frequency of operation being proportional to D2/X. Similar to a compact range, the test zone is confined to a localized region, and the quality of the test zone field does not improve with distance as it does for a far field range. The method is implemented by compensating the phase taper associated with a single radiator by employing a uniformly excited, concentric ring array. The quality and transverse extent of the test zone fields may be adjusted by varying the relative amplitude and phase excitation of the array. Syntheses of a test zone region characterized by a 1 dB amplitude ripple over 70% of the disk defined by the projected ring aperture is demonstrated.
Effect of spherical measurement surface size on the accuracy of test zone field predictions, The
D.N. Black,E.B. Joy, J.W. Epple, M.G. Guler, R.E. Wilson, November 1993
The field present in the test zone of an antenna measurement range can be calculated from the range field measured on a spherical surface containing the test zone. Calculated test zone fields are accurate only within a spherical volume concentric to the measurement surface. This paper presents a technique for determining the probing radius necessary to create a volume of accuracy containing the test zone of the range. The volume of accuracy radium limit is caused by the spherical mode filtering property of the displaced probe. This property is demonstrated in the paper using measured field data for probes of differing displacement radii. This property is used to determine the volume of accuracy radium from the probing radius. This is demonstrated using measured far-field range data.
Advances in near-field techniques: phaseless and truncated data
T. Isernia,G. Leone, R. Pierri, November 1993
Phaseless measurements are going to represent a viable and less expensive alternative to standard near field techniques since they allow to reduce to a very large extent the complexity of an indoor set-up. In fact, they require "scalar" receivers, probe positioning systems with less strict mechanical requirements, and present no cabling problem. Furthermore the anechoic environment extension can be reduced and low dynamic range receivers used as "truncated" data can be managed. In this paper we outline the main advantages of an approach to the solution of the problem of the far field reconstruction from phaseless near field measurements. Conditions to reliably process the collected data can be put forward so circumventing the main difficulties of most solution algorithms for non linear inverse problems. Experimental results are also included for the planar geometry.
Hughes Aircraft Company RCS/antenna measurement chamber characterization
A. Jain,C.R. Boerman, E. Walton, V.J. Vokurka, November 1993
The Hughes Aircraft Company Compact Range facility for antenna and RCS measurements, scheduled for completion in 1993, is described. The facility features two compact ranges. Chamber 1 was designed for a 4 to 6 foot quiet zone, and Chamber 2 was designed for a 10 to 14 foot quiet zone. Each chamber is TEMPEST shielded with 1/4 inch welded steel panels to meet NSA standard 65-6 for RF isolation greater than 100 dB up to 100 GHz, with personnel access through double inter locked Huntley RFI/EMI sliding pneumatic doors certified to maintain 100 dB isolation. While Chamber 1 is designed to operate in the frequency range from 2 to 100 GHz, Chamber 2 is designed for the 1 to 100 GHz region. Both RCS measurements and antenna field patterns/gain measurements can be made in each chamber. The reflectors used are the March Microwave Dual Parabolic Cylindrical Reflector System with the sub-reflector mounted on the ceiling to permit horizontal target cuts to be measured in the symmetrical plane of the reflector system.
20 GHz active phased array characterization
J.P. Kenney,E. Martin, L.D. Poles, November 1994
The radiation characteristics for an active phased array receive antenna operating at K Band were measured at the Ipswich Research Facility. On-pole and cross-pole radiation patterns were measured for several scan angles. In this paper we'll discuss the general design of the antenna and the instrumentation ensemble used to perform the far field and near field characterization of this antenna. Measurements taken on a 2600 foot far field range vs. a near field planer scanner are compared.
High speed multi-frequency antenna measurements in the MDTI radar measurement center
J.D. Weatherington, November 1994
This paper demonstrates a high speed antenna measurement capability recently developed in the MDTI Radar Measurement Center. Originally constructed as a Radar Cross Section facility, the RMC has added the capability to measure antenna patterns on apertures up to 40-feet in length in the far field. Data will be presented to demonstrate system performance through the use of modern output formats, such as global plots and videotape presentations.
A Dual-frequency millimeter-wave radiometer antenna for airborne remote sensing of atmosphere and ocean, A
M.H. Francis,D. Kremer, D.A. Hazen, L.S. Fedor, M.D. Jacobson, W.B. Madsen, November 1994
Accurate multiwavelength radiometric remote sensing of the ocean and the atmosphere from an aircraft requires antennas with the same beamwidth at the various frequencies of operation. Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration designed an offset antenna with a pressure-compensating corrugated feed horn to meet this criterion. A specially designed fairing was incorporated into the antenna to optimize the aerodynamics and minimize the liquid buildup on the antenna surfaces. The antenna has two positions: the zenith (up) position and the nadir (down) position. The planar near-field facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used to determine the far-field pattern of the antenna. The results show that the antenna beamwidths at 23.87 and 31.65 GHz are nearly the same as expected from the design criterion. This antenna was recently used in an ocean remote-sending experiment and performed according to expectations.
Comparison of the holographic radiometric, and near-field surface error measurements of a 14-m radio telescope
J. Tuovinen,E. Lauria, M. Brewer, N.R. Erickson, P.F. Goldsmith, R. Grosslein, R. Snell, November 1994
The RMS surface error predicted by holographic measurements is often smaller that the one predicted by radiometric measurements. At the FCRAO, a difference of 40% was observed for the 14-millimeter radio telescope. To find the explanation for this discrepancy, simulations and additional near-field measurements were performed. The near-field measurements were carried out at 91.9 GHz on a part of the aperture of the telescope. This paper describes the near-field measurements and presents a careful comparison between the results from holographic, radiometric and near-field surface error measurements. This comparison and simulations revealed that the main reason for the discrepancy between the radiometric and h9olographic results was the smoothing of the holographic data. The smoothing has been used for reducing the effects of the truncated far-field data in the FFT process.
Spherical microwave holography, the movie
E.B. Joy,D.A. Leatherwood, M.G. Guler, November 1994
Microwave holography is an important technique for analyzing electromagnetic fields in close proximity to objects such as antennas or radomes. In this paper, data measured in the far-field and near-field are transformed to the surface of a spherical radome using spherical microwave holography. Further, the fields are calculated on a sequence of spheres concentric to the spherical radome to display the spatial distribution of the fields as a function of distance from the surface of the radome out to five wavelengths from the radome, a movie. This progression demonstrates the ability to locate radome surface defects is severely limited without the use of microwave holography. Three sets of radome defects are presented and range in size from three-eights of a wavelength to three wavelengths. This paper shows that near-field measurements alone are not generally capable of locating defects directly.
Low frequency operation, design, and limitations of the compact range reflector
S. Brumley, November 1994
Traditionally the Compact Range is not considered a viable method for conducting low frequency (VHF/UHF) antenna or RCS measurements because of the limited electrical size of the collimating reflector system. Normally, compact range measurements are conducted in the extreme near-field or the collimating system where to reflector size is on the order of 25 to 30 wavelengths minimum with at least four wavelength edge treatments. This mode of operation limits measurements to the high UHF band (800 MHz) and above for typical sized reflector systems in use today. Recent research with compact range3s indicates that acceptable VHF.UHF measurements can be conducted in the quasi far-field region of the collimating system with reflectors as small as five wavelengths and with electrically short edge treatments. A good user knowledge of this mode of operation is required to maximize its utility. A qualitative measure of acceptable quiet zone performance must also be established. This paper addresses the theory of operation, practical implementation and inherent limitations of the non-conventional use of the indoor compact range for conducting low frequency measurements.
Demonstration of test zone field compensation in an anechoic chamber far-field range
D.N. Black,D.A. Leatherwood, E.B. Joy, R.E. Wilson, November 1994
Test zone field (TZF) compensation increases antenna pattern measurement accuracy by compensating for non-plane wave TZFs. The TZF is measured over a spherical surface encompassing the test zone using a low gain probe. The measured TZF is used in the compensation of subsequent pattern measurements. TZF compensation is demonstrated using measurements taken in an anechoic chamber, far-field range. Extraneous fields produced by reflection and scattering of the range antenna field in the chamber causes the TZF to be non-planar. The effect of these extraneous fields on pattern measurements is shown. Measured TZFs are also shown. TZF compensation results for pattern measurements using a high-gain, X-band slotted waveguide array are presented.
Three antenna gain methods on a near field range
W.G. Scott,G. Masters, November 1994
The Three-Antenna gain method is commonly used on far-field ranges to determine an antenna's absolute gain. This is especially true when no other calibrated antenna is available. This method has been used for years by calibration laboratories such as NIST to calibrate probes and gain standards for far and near-field ranges. In some cases, the calibration is too costly or does not meet the schedule requirements of the near-field test range. An alternative is to calibrate the probe or gain standards directly on the near-field range. In this paper we present the results of a study done to show the accuracy of the Three-Antenna gain method when used on a near-field range. An extensive error analysis is presented validating the utility of this method.
Plane wave synthesis at Fresnel zone distances using a phase-tapered aperture
J.P. McKay, November 1994
It is shown that a phase-tapered aperture may be used to produce a uniform plane wave at Fresnel zone distances. This allows one to perform antenna/RCS measurements at reduced distances relative to a far-field range, but without the illuminator complexity and cost associated with a compact range. An asymptotic expression is obtained for the Fresnel field of a circular aperture field source distribution characterized by a large quadratic phase taper. The field is shown to be equivalent to that produced by a uniform ring source and central radiator, so that the design equations for the ring source and central radiator can be applied to plane wave synthesis using a circular phase-tapered aperture. The asymptotic expression for the field as compared with a numerical evaluation obtained using aperture integration. A simple implementation of a phase-tapered aperture using a radiating source which illuminates an aperture at a distance is presented. A quiet zone field extent which is approximately 70-80% of the source aperture extent is demonstrated.
Surface adjustment of modular mesh antenna using near field measurements
M. Shimizu, November 1994
The advantages of mesh antennas include good storability and low mass for large on-board antennas over 10M in diameter. Their weak point is that surface adjustment is necessary to attain high accurate surface. Surface adjustment traditionally involves the repeated measurement of surface node position with a theodolite system and subsequent cable adjustment. These steps take much time. This paper describes a surface adjustment scheme that uses near field measurement for a modular mesh antenna composed of mesh, cable network and supporting structure. The node positions of the antenna are obtained by back projection of the far field pattern generated from the near field pattern. The cable network has low sensitivity to changes in local node position. The results of tests show that the surface accuracy needed to achieve the required RF performance can be obtained quickly without theodolite systems.
Vertical antenna array applications on a ground-bounce instrumentation radar range
B.E. Fischer, November 1994
A vertical array of antennas is used to beamform the farfield used in the measurement of Radar Cross Section (RCS) on a ground-bounce radar range. By properly weighting (attenuating) and phasing (through line length adjustments) each antenna, a desired far-field pattern can be obtained. This paper discusses some benefits of the technique and outlines a basic mathematical approach. Implementation is considered, and wide band ramifications of a practical design are discussed. At RATSCAT, this basic understanding was used to examine a simple two element array. This paper preceded that study and was originally written just for that purpose.


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