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RCS
String support system for RCS measurements
L.A. Snover (Boeing Defense & Space Group), November 1992
The target support system at Boeing Defense & Space Group's 9-77 Compact Range includes a new string support system. The string support system consists of twelve string reels, six each of the High Capacity String Reels (HCSR). The string reel system is used to suspend and manipulate a target for radar cross section (RCS) measurements, primarily at frequencies below 1.5 GHz. The string reel system is capable of supporting targets up to 10,000 pounds and 40' in length and width. The manipulation and handling of targets, is a major consideration in a RCS measurement test plan. The following paper discusses the newly installed string reel system, enhancements to the 9-77 Range equipment which directly affect the use of the string support system, and future developments planned for the system.
Dual polaized constant beamwidth RCS reflector antenna
S. Hendler (Israel Aircraft Industries),G. Lazar (ECI Telecom Ltd.) S. Shammas (Israel Aircraft Industries), November 1992
A reflector antenna has been designed for the RCS measurements. The antenna is dual linearly polarized and exhibits constant beamwidth over an octave bandwidth. The design principle has been to keep the effective antenna aperture constant in terms of the wavelength over an octave bandwidth. The theoretical design lead into the choice of the antenna and the feed. The reflector was an offset parabolic reflector. The feed was a ring-loaded conical corrugated horn. The measurement results of the designed reflector antenna showed very good agreement with the computer results. The V- and H- polarization characteristics of the antenna are almost identical.
The HP 85330A multi-channel, multi-event system controller for high speed antenna and RCS measurement systems
J.M. Moorehead (Hewlett-Packard Company), November 1992
The HP-85330A multi-channel, multi-even system controller was designed to take advantage of the speed, performance and flexibility of automated HP 8530A microwave receiver antenna and RCS measurement systems. In its simplest form, the HP85330A is a VXI mainframe and card that controls high-speed, high-isolation solid-state microwave switch modules. Using the FAST data modes and internal data buffers of the HP 8530A, the measurement system is allowed to run at the maximum speed and performance specification. It accomplishes this through hardware control of the triggering and timing of the HP 8530A microwave receiver, HP8360 series sources, positioner controllers, and external switch modules. For outdoor ranges, the HP 85330A is capable of hardware handshaking with other HP 85330As through balanced twisted-pair wires. Accompanying the HP85330A controller are the HP 85331A and HP 85332A SP2T and SP4T external switch modules. To facilitate remoting the switches, communication between the HP 85330A system interface and 85331/2A is by parallel, twisted pair balanced lines. The lines are capable of distances of 40 meters. The switch modules are individually addressable or can be cascaded to form complex switch trees. Actual measurement throughout data is presented.
Broadband RAM plasma-absorber system theory and experiment
R.J. Vidmar (SRI International),D.G. Watters (SRI International), November 1992
A plasma-absorber system consists of a membrane that confines a collusional gas at atmospheric pressure and an ionization source. The ionization source generates a dense plasma that tenuous near the confinement membrane. An electromagnetic wave propagating through this plasma is attenuated. The mechanism for absorption is momentum transfer among electrons, driven by an incident wave, and a gas. Because the momentum-transfer collision rate, v, at atmospheric pressure can be as high as 870 x 10^9 s-1, the 3-dB bandwidth for absorption (~v/20) is approximately 40 GHz. The plasma thickness between the source and confinement membrane is approximately one wavelength at the lowest frequency. The magnitude of absorption depends on this thickness, the maximum electron number density, and the electron density gradient. A smooth gradient reduces reflections. This paper discusses a theoretical model that predicts general absorption and reflectivity phenomena. Experiments have quantified 40-dB performance at VHF using a 4-mil polyethylene vessel, and at X-band using a 2-mil Mylar inflatable support system. Applications to precision RCS measurements include reduction of backwall reflections and target interaction with the ground plane, and a shutter for reference targets.
New wedge and pyramidal absorber designs
W.D. Burnside (Ohio State University),C.F. Yang (Ohio State University), R.C. Rudduck (Ohio State University), November 1992
For the last few years, the Periodic Moment Method (PMM) has been used to analyze the scattered fields from an infinite absorber wall. Using this approach the absorbe4r can have different periodicities in the x and y directions, as well as arbitrary shapes and any dielectic (sic) distribution. This makes this analysis method very general such that it can treat any conventional wedge or pyramidal designs. Plus, it has been used to develop new ones, which is the subject of this paper. Traditionally there have been chamber uses for both wedge and pyramidal absorber (sic). In a normal RCS range, one uses pyramidal material in forward sector around the feed, wedge absorber through the target zone and pyramids on the backwall. Using this approach, one takes advantage of the basic features of the two types of absorber. To improve wedge material, one is interested in reducing its normal incidence reflection coefficient because the long straight edge is a rather large scatterer. Through the use of the PMM analysis, curved and serrated wedge absorber designs have been developed and tested. Both show significant improvement relative to conventional material. As for the pyramidal model, one would hope to improve its size requirements especially for lower frequencies. Recall that two wavelengths at 100 MHz is twenty feet. By placing twenty foot material throughout a chamber, one greatly restricts the size of the room. Again, the PMM analysis has been used to develop a new curved pyramid design which can perform as well as a conventional pyramid twice its size. Thus, one could use curved pyramids that are ten feet at 100 MHz and achieve the same performance as the commercially available twenty-foot material.
Automated test sequencer for high volume near-field measurements, An
G. Hindman,D. Slater, November 1993
Test sequencing flexibility and high throughput are essential ingredients to a state-of-the-art near-field test range. This paper will discuss methods used by NSI to aid the operator through the near-field measurement process. The paper will describe NSI's expert system and customer applications of a unique test and processing sequencer developed by NSI for optimizing range measurement activities. The sequencer provides powerful control of software functions including multiplexed measurements, data processing and unattended test operations.
Portable RCS diagnostic system
R. Harris,B. Freburger, D. Maffei, R. Redman, November 1993
This paper describes the most recent version of the Model 200 portable RCS diagnostic radar. The Model 200 was designed to provide high-resolution RCS measurements in unprepared rooms indoors as well as on outdoor ranges. The system can provide real aperture measurements, ISAR measurements, or SAR measurements without changing system configuration.
Implementation of a 22' x 22' planar near-field system for satellite antenna measurements
G. Hindman,G. Masters, November 1993
Design and implementation of a large horizontal planar near-field system delivered to Space Systems/Loral for satellite antenna testing will be discussed. The 22' x 22' scan plane is 25' above the ground and employs real-time optical compensation for the X, Y, Z corrections to the probe position. The system provides high speed multiplexed near-field measurements using NSI's software and the HP-8530A microwave receiver. System throughput is enhanced through the use of a powerful and flexible test sequencer software module.
Application of Prony's method to software gating
C.W. Trueman,C.L. Larose, M. Flynn, S. Mishra, November 1993
Prony's method has been found useful in extracting the time domain response over extended time using data samples of limited time span. This paper describes results of studies underway to apply Prony's method to extracting the RCS time and frequency response from limited measured and computed data. The technique has been applied to characterize the RCS response of structures with inherent multiple resonances, e.g., a dielectric cube constructed using high-permittivity dielectric material. Implications of the technique to gated antenna and RCS measurements are discussed.
Measurement speed and accuracy in switched signal measurements
J. Swanstrom,R. Shoulders, November 1993
The interdependence of accuracy and speed should be considered when analyzing measurement requirements. Tradeoffs can be made to optimize the measurement when accuracy is of primary importance, or where speed is critical. Several different measurement modes of the HP 8530A Microwave Receiver are presented, each with different measurement speed and accuracy tradeoffs. Examples are given that illustrate which acquisition modes would be appropriate to optimize the acquisition speed and accuracy in a variety of applications
Superresolution ISAR imaging techniques
E. Walton,I.J. Gupta, November 1993
This paper demonstrates modem parametric modeling techniques that can be used to form high resolution ISAR images of full scale flying aircraft. Both parametric spectral estimation techniques and autoregressive data extrapolation techniques are shown. We demonstrate imaging. In each case, the modem spectral estimation or data extrapolation techniques produce higher image resolution than that which is obtained by classical Fourier techniques.
Polarization grids for applications in compact antenna test ranges
M.A.J. van de Griendt,V.J. Vokurka, November 1993
In polarimetric RCS measurements, the cross-polarization levels which are required in the test zone, correspond closely to those which are realizable with most Compact Antenna Test Ranges (CATR). On the other hand, such a performance may not satisfy the accuracy requirements in cross-polarization measurements of high performance microwave antennas. These applications include spacecraft antennas, ground stations for satellite communications or microwave antennas for terrestrial applications, where two polarizations are used simultaneously.
Scattering by a simplified ship deckhouse model
C.R. Birtcher,E.R. Bonsen, J.T. Aberle, November 1993
Contrast of VHF RCS measurement challenges indoor/outdoor, A
D. Craig,J. Matis, November 1993
This paper contrasts indoor and outdoor implementation of efforts during upgrades of VHR RCS measurement capabilities. Sites studied are two McDonnell Douglas Technologies Incorporated, Range Measurements Services facilities. Indoor. Radar Measurement Center (San Diego, CA) is a large compact range. Equipment-Harris Corporation Model 1630 Collimator System, Scientific Atlanta Model 2090 radar. Outdoor. Microwave test facility (Victorville, CA), large ground plane facility. Equipment-Steerable dipole feed dish, System Planning Corp, Mark III radar.
Remote thickness sensor
W.S. Arceneaux, November 1993
Applications that require tight tolerances on dielectric thickness control need accurate sensors. A technique has been developed that will allow for the measurement of thickness without requiring surface contact. High resolution radar imaging, commonly used in RCS measurements , is now being used to measure thickness. Electromagnetic fields reflected from the front and rear surface are detected and the time response delta is converted into thickness. A major advantage of this method is that it is not affected by varying sensor offset height.
Portable RCS diagnostic system
R. Harris,B. Freburger, D. Maffei, R. Redman, November 1993
This paper describes the most recent version of the Model 200 portable RCS diagnostic radar. The Model 200 was designed to provide high-resolution RCS measurements in unprepared rooms indoors as well as on outdoor ranges. The system can provide real aperture measurements, ISAR measurements, or SAR measurements without changing system configuration.
Ground-to-air RCS diagnostic system
R. Harris,A. Strasel, B. Freburger, C. Zappala, M. Lewis, R. Redman, November 1993
The initial phase of METRATEK's new Model 300 Radar System has been installed at the Navy's Chesapeake Tests Range (CTR) at Patuxent River, MD. This ground-to-air Multimode, Multifrequency Instrumentation Radar System (MMIRS) is a high-throughput frequency-and-polarization agile radar that is designed to drastically reduce the cost of measuring the radar cross section of airborne targets by allowing simultaneous measurements to be made at VHF through Ku Band.
High duty instrumentation radar transmitters
F.A. Miller, November 1993
Today's requirements for dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS) test data set new demands upon instrumentation Radar systems. Transmitters must deliver high power and operate at high data rates. Additionally, noise floor reduction of coherent spurious signals improves raw data and minimizes the need for manipulation of data.
Demonstration of bistatic electromagnetic scattering measurements by spherical near-field scanning, A
M.G. Cote,R.M. Wing, November 1993
The far-field radar cross section (RCS) of a conducting sphere is obtained by transforming scattered near-fields measured on a spherical surface. A simple and convenient calibration procedure is described that involves measuring the incident field directly at the target location. Although a non probe-corrected transmission formula was used in this study the importance of prove correction in practice is demonstrated.
Application of Prony's method to software gating
C.W. Trueman,C.L. Larose, M. Flynn, S. Mishra, November 1993
Prony's method has been found useful in extracting the time domain response over extended time using data samples of limited time span. This paper describes results of studies underway to apply Prony's method to extracting the RCS time and frequency response from limited measured and computed data. The technique has been applied to characterize the RCS response of structures with inherent multiple resonances, e.g., a dielectric cube constructed using high-permittivity dielectric material. Implications of the technique to gated antenna and RCS measurements are discussed.


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