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Abstract—Nowadays, radar retro-reflector has been widely applied as a decoy, to seduce an incoming assault away from the target, or towards a less vulnerable part of it to communication systems and remote identification as their characteristics of low-profile, low-cost and Radar Cross Section(RCS) enhancement. A passive retro-reflector is a device which can be used to be reflected most of the energy incident upon it in the direction of the in-going wave. The Luneberg lens and a sphere are widely used as their self characteristics. In this paper one of the retro-reflector, is paid more attention as time goes by, is introduced. The retroreflector is consist of patch antenna arrays and feeding system and can be defined as Retro-directive arrays (RDA). It has a very simple structure and can focus outgoing waves back at the direction of incident waves. The character of the re-radiation pattern affected by the size and type of patch and width and length of feeding network related are optimized by the HFSS. The final results are validated experimentally.
Abstract— Compact ranges are ideal settings for collecting low-RCS measurement data at high pulse rates. However, until recently, two operating constraints have limited the efficiency of instrumentation radar systems in this setting: (1) system delays limiting Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) and (2) fixed integration across frequency resulting in more time spent on certain frequencies than required. In this paper, we demonstrate the capability to significantly increase data throughput by using a Burst-Mode to increase the usable PRF and a frequency table editing mode to vary integration levels across the frequency bandwidth. A major factor in the choice of PRF for a specific application is system hardware delays. We describe the use of a Burst-Mode of operation in the MkVe Radar to reduce delays caused by physical layout of the instrumentation hardware. Burst-Mode essentially removes setup time in the system, reducing the time between pulses to the roundtrip time of flight from the antenna to the target. Most pulsed-IF instrumentation radar users fix the coherent integration level for the entire measurement waveform, even though the set level of integration may not be required at all frequencies to achieve the desired sensitivity. We describe the use of a frequency table Parameter Editor Mode in the MkVe that allows the integration level to vary for each step in the waveform. We demonstrate the use of both methods to reduce data collection time by a factor of seven using a MkVe Radar installed in a compact range.
Abstract— Measurements and strategies for the calculation of radar cross-sections in the shorter millimeter wave region, especially of objects that include rough surfaces, are discussed. Because of decreasing wavelength, roughness becomes more significant in this spectral region, but also more difficult to characterize. A tabletop radar cross-section measurement system was set up to measure scattering from canonical objects and rough objects with regular or random patterns using a swept frequency continuous wave system. Random, rough objects of different surface roughnesses were measured and fit to statistical distributions governed by optical speckle theory. In this paper we consider the inclusion of optical speckle theory in the electromagnetic codes to address both issues associated with the characterization of target surfaces and the time required for numerical calculations.
Abstract— A fully polarimetric compact radar range operating at a center frequency of 100 GHz has been developed for obtaining radar cross section, inverse synthetic aperture radar imagery and high range resolution profiles on targets and structures of interest. The 100 GHz radar range provides scale-model RCS measurements for a variety of convenient scale factors including W-Band (1:1 scale), C-band (1:16 scale), and S-band (1:26 scale). An overview of the radar range is provided in this paper along with measurement examples of ISAR scale-model imaging, scale-model through-wall imaging, and preliminary kHz sweep-rate Doppler that demonstrate a few of the diverse and unique applications for this system. The 100 GHz transceiver consists of a fast-switching, stepped, CW microwave synthesizer driving dual-transmit and dual-receive frequency multiplier chains. The stepped resolution of the system’s frequency sweep is sufficient for unambiguous resolution of the entire chamber. The compact range reflector is a CNC machined aluminum reflector edge-treated with FIRAM™-160 absorber serrations and fed from the side to produce a clean quiet zone. This range is the latest addition to a suite of compact radar ranges developed by the Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory providing scale-model radar measurements at nearly all of the common radar bands.
Abstract—It is well-known that a complete bistatic set of near-.eld scattering data is required to compute far-.eld radar cross section (RCS) quantities. In many practical applications, however, only monostatic scattering data is available. Almost all algorithms for the transformation of monostatic near-.eld data are based on the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image representation.Since these algorithms are often acceleratedbythe fastFouriertransform(FFT),they usuallypose manylimitations on the measurement procedure such as regularly spaced grids and separate treatment of the different polarizations due to scalar processing. In this paper, a novel and .exible algorithm is presented which is not based on the FFT but on multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) principles. Therefore, it is similar to the fast irregular antenna .eld transformation algorithm (FIAFTA) which has been designed for the transformation of antenna .elds and measurements. Numerical results of different scenarios show that these principles can also be successfully applied to monostatic scattering data. In summary, this approach is superior to existing algorithms, because it provides more .exibility while it is still very ef.cient.
Abstract—The 3D reconstruction algorithm of DIATOOL is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data had shown that the test support frame of the array had a significant influence on the measured feed pattern. The 3D reconstruction and further post-processing is therefore applied both to the feed array measured data, and a set of simulated data generated by the GRASP software which replicate the series of measurements. The results of the diagnostics and the corresponding improvement of the feed array field obtained by removal of the undesired effect of the frame are presented and discussed.
Abstract— Electromagnetic properties of aircraft and missile skins have a large effect on radar cross sections and determine the level of stealth that is achieved over the various RF bands currently in use. RF absorption, reflection, and propagation along the skin surface all serve as important measures of the electromagnetic performance of the coated surfaces. Non-invasive probing of the electromagnetic field just above the propagating wave at multiple spots along the propagation direction can be used to determine and measure wave propagation parameters, including effective RF index, loss per length, wave impedance, and frequency dependent material properties of the coatings. Wide-band photonic electric field sensors have been demonstrated for probing of dielectric layers by measuring the traveling waves along the coated aircraft surface. The photonic E-field sensors are extremely linear and produce an exact real time analog RF representation of the electric field, including phase information. These ultra-wideband (UWB) photonic RF sensors are very small and contain negligible metal content, allowing them to be placed at close proximity without perturbing the RF surface waves. This is very important in accurately characterizing highly damped surface waves on absorber layers. This paper discusses the linearity, bandwidth, polarization, and sensitivity of the unique UWB photonic E-field sensor design. Experimental results are presented on surface-wave characterization measurements using these sensors.
Radar sensor working at 76-77GHz band, because of its long detection range, high resolution and excellent performance in different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to develop on-road pedestrian collision avoidance system. Therefore, studying the pedestrian radar scattering features is important to develop reliable on-road pedestrian detection algorithm. In this paper, we first discuss the measurement setup requirement at 76-77GHz to obtain reliable radar cross section (RCS) data of human subjects. Then the RCS pattern of human subjects with different postures and different body features are measured and studied. The observed radar features could be further developed into stable radar signatures to improve the pedestrian identification algorithm.
Antenna test engineers are faced with testing increasingly complex antenna systems, one of these being the AESA (Active Electronically Steered Array) antennas used for cell communications, jammers, and radars. Often these antennas have integrated electronics and RF components that are an intricate part of the antenna, and as a result must be tested with the waveforms generated by the antenna itself. One cannot simply inject an unmodulated continuous wave signal. These antennas require new measurement techniques which are compatible with their broadband waveforms. The reference channel of a measurement receiver can be used to collapse the spectrum of the modulated signal into a single CW measurement. Done properly all the energy in the signal is captured with noise and interference being dispersed, resulting in no loss of DR (dynamic range) over a CW measurement. A receiver employing this technique can capture all the energy in modulated and pulsed signals wielding wide dynamic range measurements. Phased locked loops (PLL) are not used as they can preclude such measurements. A measurement receiver that uses a digital correlator to collapse the spectrum of modulated and pulsed signals will be presented. This paper will describe the technique used to do this and show measured results on example broadband signals.
Compact range measurement facilities have been used successfully for many years to characterize antenna performance as well as radar signature. This paper investigates strategies for improving compact range measurement accuracy by mitigating errors associated with ground reflections inherent in most range designs. A methodology is developed for strategically modifying, or patterning, the surface between the range source antenna and the reflector to reduce error terms, thereby increasing measurement accuracy. Candidate patterns were evaluated using a full-wave computational finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model at VHF/UHF frequencies to determine baseline performance and develop trade rules for more advanced designs. Physical optics (PO) models were used to analyze the final design at the frequencies of interest.
Reconfigurable radar antennas with rapid, real-time control of the radiation pattern beamwidth provide expanded performance for many instrumentation radar applications, including RCS signature measurement and dynamic Time Space Position Information (TSPI) radar tracking applications. Adaptive adjustment of antenna radiation patterns was traditionally accomplished by electro-mechanically selecting predefined aperture dimensions that corresponded to desired beamwidths (e.g., ? ?/D). For an array antenna consisting of as few as 200 elements, beam shaping can be accomplished by adjusting the relative phase of individual array elements, a technique defined as beam spoiling or decollimation. This paper analyzes an operational radar antenna array incorporating reconfigurable beamwidth and beam shape through independent phase control of each subaperture. By adjusting the relative phase of radiating elements, the system can illuminate a programmable field of regard with full transmit power. For this array, the phase distributions across the elements map to a smaller "virtual aperture" displaced behind the physical array. Theoretical and measured results are presented to validate the reconfigurable array pattern control technique.
There are many ways to acquire the current location, global positioning system (GPS), triangulation, radar, and dead reckoning. Today GPS is the most reliable and accurate navigation technique when there is a clear, unobstructed view of the satellite constellation. However, when GPS is not available, another means of reliable navigation must be accomplished. The Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) random noise radar (RNR) is a possible solution to the indoor navigation problem. However, the current implementation of the RNR requires a large amount of data to be transfered between radar pulses. This research determined if using a template replay strategy has the same RNR performance as using an analog noise source. Using the template replay approach, each RNR node has a priori knowledge about the transmitted waveforms of other nodes and does not require the large data transfer between radar pulses. The analysis here revealed that modifications do not significantly alter RNR functionality. The analysis revealed that even at signalto- noise plus interference ratio (SNIR) equal to 0 dB, there are no parameters that can be reliably extracted other than transmitted signal bandwidth and transmitted template length; the transmitted message length was able to be extracted because the message was repeated over and over. If the message was not replayed the analysis showed that there would be no ability to extract parameters. Finally, by using the RNR to transmit digitally generated templates, digital communication is possible and the symbol error rate (SER) is traceable to simulated SER.
In 2008 and 2011 we proposed at AMTA a method of radar imagery based on Fast Fourier Transform. We demonstrated then that this method was faced with interpolation problematic (which could be almost solved) and that the obtained radar image had a poor resolution imposed by the low bandwidth used during the measurement. We saw then that because of this resolution issue, it was impossible to distinguish two scatterers when they were too close. This article presents methods allowing to improve the resolution of radar image without increasing the bandwidth of measurement but using 1D super-resolution techniques adapted to 2D or 3D measurements. More precisely, this article proposes first to explain the principle of three 1D super-resolution methods: the Capon method, the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method and the ESPRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques) method. This principle understood, these methods will be then adapted to 2D or 3D measurements in order to be used to calculate high resolution radar images. Eventually, a true target will be used in order to compare the different radar images obtained from the different super-resolution techniques.
Radar Cross Section (RCS) and Antenna measurement ranges share many common features and are often used for both purposes. Calibration of these dual-purpose ranges is typically done using the substitution method for both RCS and antenna testing, but with separate RCS and antenna standards. RCS standards are typically based on a geometric shape having a well known theoretical value – and corresponding small uncertainty. By contrast, antenna standards typically must be “calibrated” in a separate antenna calibration system to be used as a gain standard, often yielding higher uncertainties. This paper presents an efficient method for transferring an RCS measurement calibration to an antenna measurement range configuration, allowing a range to be used for both purposes with a single calibration. Insight into the best ways to re-configure the instrumentation between RCS and antenna testing is included. Validation measurements from a compact range are included along with an uncertainty analysis of the method.
The RF electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 2 MHz to 94 GHz, can be considered an evolving, but finite resource. This span of spectrum is used for a multitude of purposes including communications, radio and television broadcasting, radio navigation, sensing and radar. The portion of the spectrum from 2-4 GHz has become particularly problematical due to the influx of wireless systems such as WiMAX into a region which has traditionally been associated with radar systems. This paper will discuss the different types of measurements made on radars and other non-radar users of this spectrum. First, the propagation physics of why different types of radars reside in selected frequency bands and why other non-radar systems seek and have gained entrance to these bands is reviewed. The unique spectral characteristics of radars, not generally found in communications systems will be addressed. The trade-offs in using conventional superheterodyne and FFT based spectrum analyzers versus the newer real time spectrum analyzers will be discussed in terms of their capability in evaluating radar spectrum. The spectral characteristics of a variety of communications waveforms will be explored, such as OFDM, and how they can complicate the process of measuring radar type signals in a radiated test. The types of antennas that are used in these radar systems will be discussed and how these antennas influence the reliability of these measurements. Finally, some of the issues associated with separating out antenna effects from waveform effects in legacy & future radars will be discussed. The need for improved measurement techniques and systems will also be addressed.
Ground to air imaging poses numerous technical challenges, a number of which relate to target motion throughout its inverse synthetic aperture. A well-tracked target benefits not only its illumination, but provides an accurate description of the target’s position as a function of time. Tracking may be accomplished using a monopulse tracking radar or precision GPS/telemetry techniques; either of which are sufficiently accurate for coarse translational motion compensation. However, without target attitude telemetry, the inverse synthetic aperture may still be inferred from the target’s spherical coordinates and their first derivatives, and coarse rotational motion compensation may be performed. Further refinement is available from the in-phase/quadrature data. Residual translational motion may be characterized and corrected by considering both intra-chirp (i.e., within stepped chirps) and inter-chirp phase migration, accommodating fine translational motion compensation. The data become reasonably bandlimited, allowing rotational motion compensation to be performed via bandlimited resampling, yielding a focused ISAR image.
All of us involved with antenna measurements or radar cross section measurements are familiar with the absorber seen on the walls, ceiling, and floor of anechoic chambers. It helps simulate free-space conditions. It comes in various shapes and lengths, and it reduces the reflections, or unwanted energy, from encroaching on the quiet zone. But what makes one absorber better than another? Further, what advances in composition have been made over the last 50 years to improve the simulation of free space? This paper will address differences in geometry and differences in materials and “ingredients” for optimizing performance. Also, it will discuss the advantages in using different materials to create stronger absorber to help maintain performance and for creating clean and safe environments, for such endeavors as measurements involving flight hardware.
As a novel concept for field probes, RCS measurements on long rigid objects rotated within a small angular range about the broadside condition are reported. The rotation was maintained either in a horizontal (H) plane or in a vertical (V) plane containing the center of the quiet-zone (QZ). Processing the RCS data by DFT yields a spectrum which is recognized as the field distribution along that object. This spectrum compares extremely well to traditional field-probes taken earlier by translating a sphere across the QZ in H- or V-direction. Preliminary results at several S-band frequencies are presented and discussed.
This paper describes the development of a method based on measurements of the radar cross section (RCS) in the forward direction to determine the extinction cross section for the 2.5-38GHz frequency range using the optical theorem. Forward RCS measurements are technically complicated due to that the direct signal has to be subtracted from the total signal at the receiving antenna in order to extract the forward RCS. The efficiency of this subtraction as a function of time is evaluated. A traditional calibration method using a calibration target and a second method that does not require a calibration target are investigated and compared. The accuracy of the forward RCS measurements is determined using small spheres of different sizes. The spheres have a forward RCS that is straightforward to calculate with good accuracy. The method is also extended to polarimetric measurements on a small helix that are compared to theoretical calculations.