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Radar
Extension of plane wave scattering matrix theory of antenna-antenna interactions to three antennas: A Near-Field Radar Cross Section Concept
M. A. Dinallo (The BDM Corporation), November 1984
This paper presents a three-antenna plane-wave scattering-matrix (PWSM) formulation and a formal solution. An example will be demonstrated in which two of the three antennas are electromagnetically identical (the transmitter and the receiver) and the third (the scatterer) has arbitrary electromagnetic properties. A reduced reflection integral-matrix will be discussed which describes the transmit, scatter, receive (TSR) interaction. An antenna scatterer spectral tensor Greens function is identified. In this formulation the transmit spectrum will be scattered by the third arbitrary antenna (target) and this scattered spectrum may be considered to have originated from a transmitting antenna. Near-field antenna measurement techniques are applicable with determine the electric (scattered) field spectral density function.1, 2 If a second deconvolution is applied, a transmit probe corrected spectral density function or scattering tensor can be determined in principle. In either case, a near- or far-electric field can be calculated and a radar cross section determined.
Performance criteria for RCS measurement systems
J. Tavormina (Scientific Atlanta), November 1984
The purpose of an instrumentation radar is to characterize the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of a target as a function of target aspect and radar frequency. In addition, an instrumentation radar may be used to produce a high resolution radar image of a target which is useful in target identification work and as a diagnostic tool in radar cross section reduction. These purposes differ from those of a conventional radar, in which the objective is to detect the presence of a target and to measure the range to the target. Several different radars are currently used to perform radar cross section measurements. Common instrumentation radars may be classified as CW, Pulsed CW (Low-Bandwidth IF), Linear FM (FM-CW), Pulsed (High-Bandwidth IF) and Short Pulse (Very High-Bandwidth IF). These radars accomplish the measurement task in distinct manners, and it is sometimes difficult to determine where the strength or weakness of each radar lies. In this paper, a set of performance criteria is proposed for RCS measurements. The proposed criteria can be applied uniformly to any instrumentation radar independent of the type of radar design employed. The criteria are chosen to emphasize those performance characteristics that relate directly to RCS measurements and thus are most important to the user. Two instrumentation radars which have been designed at Scientific Atlanta, namely the Series 2084 (Linear FM) and the Series 1790 (Pulse), are used to illustrate the application of the performance criteria.
Obtaining bistatic data utilizing a monostatic measurement system
P. Zuzolo (Fairchild Republic), November 1984
A monostatic radar measurement system at the U.S. Navy Pacific Missile Test Center (PACMISTESTCEN) located at Pt. Mugu, California was utilized to obtain incidence angle performance of radar absorbing structure (RAS) panels. The traditional methods of obtaining reflectivity data for absorptive materials over a range of incidence angles is a technique known as the NRL arch. Developed over 30 years ago by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, the technique utilizes moveable bistatic antennas on an arch equidistant from the test material panel in order to obtain incidence angle data.
Extraction of narrow band responses for wideband RCS data
D. Mensa (Pac. Miss. Test Cen.), November 1984
Wideband RCS instrumentation systems can provide a high degree of range resolution. By combining wideband RCS data with a synthetic-aperture or Doppler processing, the spatial distribution of radar reflectivity can be determined. These systems provide diagnostic capabilities which are useful for locating scattering sources on complex objects and for assessing the effectiveness of modifications. The Proceedings of the 1983 meeting included a paper which described a linear-FM system operating over a 3 GHz bandwidth capable of measuring RCS vs range, cross range, and frequency using a single measurement set-up. This paper analytically demonstrates a procedure for extracting CW RCS patterns from the wideband data obtained using the linear-FM system. By combining the latter and the former processing, it is possible to obtain from a single data array both wideband responses showing the spatial distribution of scatterers and narrowband responses which are the traditional CW RCS patterns. The paper includes experimental verifications of these assertions by comparing results of CW measured data with data extracted from wideband RCS measurements.
Near field RCS measurements
E.B. Joy (Georgia Institute of Technology), November 1984
A planar surface, near-field measurement technique is presented for the near-field measurement of monostatic radar cross-section. The theory, system configuration and measurement procedure for this technique are presented. It is shown that the far field radar cross-section can be determined from the near field measurements. An associate near-field radar cross-section measurement technique is presented for the measurement of bistatic near field radar cross-section. The bistatic technique requires a plane wave illuminator in addition to the planar surface near field measurement system. A small compact range is used as the bistatic illuminator. Bistatic near-field measurements are presented for a simple target.
Preliminary development of a phased array near field antenna coupler
D. D. Button (Sanders Associates, Inc.), November 1984
End-to-end testing of electronic warfare (EW) equipment at the organizational or flight lines level is accomplished by use of an antenna coupler which is placed over the EW system antenna. The coupler is used to inject a stimulus signal simulating a signal emanating from a distant radar, and to receive and detect the EW system response (EW transmit) signal. The coupler is used to determine the EW receiver sensitivity over a swept frequency coverage and the EW transmit gain and effective radiated power (ERP) versus frequency characteristics, as well as to determine the operating integrity of the EW antenna and transmission lines.
Broad band feeds for new RCS ranges
K.S. Kelleher, November 1984
Recent construction of RCS ranges has involved paraboloidal reflectors ranging from a few feet to sixty feet in diameter. These reflectors have required broad band feeds because the typical radar illuminator-receiver is capable of operating over an octave in frequency. This paper will describe a series of feeds which cover any octave in frequency from 100 mHz to 8 gHz, with coaxial line inputs. In addition waveguide-port feeds will be described which cover all of the standard waveguide bands up to 18 gHz. The four basic requirements for all of these feeds are: a) capable of handling the radar power, b) VSWR less than 2 to 1, c) orthomode operation with a 30 db isolation between the two linear polarizations and d) a radiation pattern which is constant with frequency. A fifth problem, for the reflectors which are truncated, is that of providing an elliptical cross section beam over the frequency band.
Drift and background reduction in radar cross section measurements by direct phasor subtraction
D.A. Crossley,R.E. Gritzo, November 1983
Background reflections from range features are a major source of error in Radar Cross Section measurements. Direct phasor subtraction of the background is possible only if the background signals prior to and after target mounting are relatable. If a complex drift, a, is allowed, use of a four-measurement technique, including a reference, can permit elimination of both a and the background.
The Ohio State University compact radar cross-section measurement range
E. Walton,J.D. Young, November 1983
This paper discusses the development and performance of a compact radar cross-section measurement range for obtaining backscattered signatures and patterns on targets up to 1.3 meters in extent, and at frequencies of 1 to eventually 100 GHz. The goal for the development was a general purpose but state of the art range which could obtain the complex radar signature vs. polarization, frequency, and target look angle for both Non-Cooperative Target Rcognition studies and Radar Cross-Section Control Studies. Since the facility was at a University, there were also concerns of cost, versatility, and ease of use in research programs by graduate students. The architecture and some design data on the system are discussed in section 2.
Dynamic radar cross section measurements
E. E. Maine (Naval Research Library),F.D. Queen (Naval Research Library) H.A. Brown (Naval Research Library), November 1983
There is a continuing need for radar cross section (RCS) measurements of targets of military interest. Such measurements are used in predicting detection performance of radars, in quantifying new radar system performance, in designing protective ECM envelopes of aircraft and ships, and in quantifying changes in RCS modification programs. There is, in addition, an interest in determining the actual radiated pattern of an avionic antenna installed on an airframe. While the system and techniques being described here have been used to support all those uses, the system was designed initially with only RCS measurements in mind.
Wideband radar cross section diagnostic measurements
D. Mensa (Pacific Missile Test Center), November 1983
This paper describes a diagnostic RCS measurement system which uses a low-power, wideband, linear-FM radar to provide RCS responses of targets as a function of frequency, range, cross range, and angle. Range and frequency responses are produced by using an FFT analyzer and a desktop computer to perform on-line signal processing and provide rapid access to final results. Two-dimensional maps of the target RCS distribution in range and cross range are obtained by offline processing of recorded data. The system processes signals resulting from a swept bandwidth exceeding 3GHz to provide range resolution of less than 10 cm. The various operating modes of the instrumentation provide a powerful tool for RCS diagnostic efforts in which individual scattering sources must be isolated and characterized. Several examples of experimental results and presented to demonstrate the utility and performance limits of the instrumentation. The examples include results obtained from measurements of a number of simple and complex shapes and of some commercially available radar absorbing materials.
An Antenna Test Range for Satellite Payload Tests
A. Saitto (European Space Agency),D.C. Patel (European Space Agency), November 1983
Conventional antenna test techniques – both far field “slant ranges” and near field – pose limitations for radiative RF testing of satellite antennas and payload systems, of increasing complexity in terms of size, operating frequencies, configurations and technology, particularly when such systems need to be evaluated in their “in-situ” locations on typical satellite platforms, in their flight configurations. Often, combination of tests and simulation has been the only recourse for evaluating system performance. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to achieve these test objectives via the use of a suitable configures, wideband, large (Quiet zone 7m x 5m x 5m), compact range for evaluation od system parameters like E.I.R.P., G/T, C/I, BER, and RF sensing performances. The test plan and evaluation schemes appropriate for these tests are elaborated to demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the approach. For some specific parameters like C/I (for a multibeam payload system) and the radar parameters (for a satellite borne radar system), it turns out that the proposed test methodologies offer the only realistic and complete tool for evaluating such system at satellite level.
High resolution instrumentation radar
R.B. Dybdal (The Aerospace Corporation),K.H. Hurlbut (The Aerospace Corporation), T.T. Mori (The Aerospace Corporation), November 1982
The development of a high resolution instrumentation radar is described. This radar constructed at X-band uses a chirp waveform to achieve a 4.9” range resolution capability. A key feature of this development is the use of cos2 x amplitude weighting to control the range sidelobes. An example of a high resolution radar response is described.
A Microwave interferometer technique for RCS and phase measurements
C. Coy,E. Lette, November 1982
The radar scatter matrix can be accurately characterized in magnitude, relative phase, and polarization for both far-field monostatic and bistatic conditions by means of a microwave interferometer. A separate transmitting antenna illuminates the target of interest while two adjacent receiving antennas measure magnitude and the combine in a phase comparator whose output is a phase differential caused by a changing target aspect angle. Using correct constants and scale factors this differential is integrated to provide target phase information. Different polarizations are obtained by switchable feeds. The technique can be used on an RCS range under static conditions or under dynamic conditions with a ground based radar and an airborne target. The advantage gained is that errors due to radar path length changes are eliminated.
Measurement of surface coupled antennas for subsurface radar probing
J.S. Izadian (The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory),J.D. Young (The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory), November 1982
The experimental techniques presented here can be used to obtain the approximate time domain transfer function and pattern of underground radar antennas. These techniques provide an easy approach to obtaining relative antennas performance. The experimental setup which is used to perform these experiments consists of slanted hollow plastic pipes bored in the ground, the receiver unit, transmitter unit, controller and processor units etc. A buried antennas is used to transmit to a test antenna on the ground surface. The data obtained from two separate test antennas are presented and compared.
A CW radar cross-section measurement facility in X-band
A.K. Bhattacharvya (Indian Institute of Technology),D.R. Sarcar (Indian Institute of Technology), S. Sanyal (Indian Institute of Technology), S.K. Tandon (Indian Institute of Technology), November 1982
A monostatic C.W. radar cross-section facility in the X-band at the Radar and Communication Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India is described. This set up is capable of automatically measuring the c.w. monostatic radar cross-section over the range of aspect angle 0 to ±180o for both TE and TM polarizations. The transmitting/receiving antenna and the rotating target is housed on the roof-top of the building and the microwave circuit with recording arrangement is in the air-conditioned laboratory. It is capable of handling a target of arbitrary shape of maximum size equal to 70 cm and uses a two-stage background (without target) cancellation technique employing Magic-T. A typical value of effective isolation between the transmitted and received signals is of the order of 70 dB and a dynamic range of 35 dB. Measurements made in this set up with different types of targets show a fair agreement with the results obtained by analytical investigations. The same set-up with necessary modifications for measuring the phase of the scattered field along with the amplitude data is expected to provide the amplitude and phase information for target identification and classification problems.
Antenna coordinate system transformations for far field measurements of vehicle mounted antennas
J.S. DeRosa (Rome Air Development Center), November 1982
Far field antenna radiation patterns of vehicle mounted antennas are often recorded on the antenna range by rotating the entire vehicle/antenna system with a multiple axis vehicle positioner. Antenna patterns, obtained in this manner, consider the antenna and vehicle as a system and include the effects of the vehicle structure. These patterns are more representative of the operational antenna patterns than the “free space” patterns of the antenna itself. When the antenna is arbitrarily directed on the vehicle, standard antenna pattern cut trajectories, recorded in the coordinate system of the vehicle, become skewed when referenced to the coordinate system of the antenna. With proper adjustment of the fixed angles of the vehicle positioner however, selected standard antenna pattern cut trajectories, referenced to the antenna, may be obtained. The required fixed vehicle positioner angles are obtained from solutions to systems of equations representing the coordinate transformations for the positioner/vehicle/antenna system. In this paper, two general methods of obtaining the coordinate transformation equations are reviewed. These equations are then solved to obtain expressions for the positioner angles necessary for specific cut trajectories. A practical example of a six axis transformation associated with measurements of a three axis gimballed aircraft mounted radar antenna and a three axis vehicle positioner is used to illustrate the techniques (This example was taken from a recent RADC/Newport measurement program.
Conceptual Analysis of Radar Cross-Section Measurements on Compact Ranges
D.W. Hess (Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.),Richard C. Johnson (Georgia Institute of Technology), November 1982
A strong emphasis is now being placed on techniques for reduction of radar cross-section. A missile or aircraft which is invisible to radar has an important strategic advantage. With this fact in mind, the user of a weapons system may place an upper limit on the radar cross-section that he will permit his missile or aircraft to have. The designer must then make use of “stealth technology” to reduce the cross-section to an acceptable level. In order to verify the design, radar cross-section measurements must be made. Thus the current emphasis on cross-section reduction leads to an important need for accurate and reliable methods of measuring radar cross-section.
High sensitivity millimeter wave instrumentation
R.B. Dybdal (The Aerospace Corporation),T. T. Mori (The Aerospace Corporation) H. E. King (The Aerospace Corporation), November 1981
This paper describes a technique to increase the millimeter-wave sensitivity of the popular 1740-1750 series SA (Scientific-Atlanta) receivers. The frequency coverage is conveniently extended with harmonic mixing techniques which reduce the sensitivity. Phase-locked circuitry was developed to allow the receiver to operate in a fundamental mixing mode which permits the measurement of millimeter-wave antennas and radar targets with the same sensitivity achieved at microwave frequencies. At Ka-band a 30 dB enhancement in sensitivity results with the phase-locked circuitry compared with the conventional instrumentation.
US Army Electronic Proving Ground
US Army, November 1981
The US Army Electronic Proving Ground is in Southeastern Arizona with outlying facilities located throughout Southern Arizona. The Proving Ground is an independent test and evaluation activity under the command of the US Army Test and Evaluation Command. It was established in 1954. EPG’s role in the material acquisition cycle is to conduct development (DT I & II), initial production (first article), and such other engineering (laboratory-type) tests and associated analytical studies of electronic materiel as directed. The results (reports) of these efforts are used by the developer to correct faults, and by Army and DOD decision-makers in determining the suitability of these materiels/systems for adoption and issue. Customer tests to satisfy specific customer requirements and foreign materiel exploitations are also done. EPG is assigned test responsibility for Army ground and airborne (aircraft-mounted) equipment/systems which utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to include: tactical communications; COMSEC (TEMPEST testing included); combat surveillance, and vision equipment (optical, electro-optical, radar, unattended sensors); intelligence acquisition; electronic warfare; radiac; imaging and image interpretation (camera, film, lens, electro-optical); camouflage; avionics; navigation and position location; remotely piloted vehicle; physical security; meteorological; electronic power generation, and tactical computers and associated software. Facilities and capabilities to perform this mission include: laboratories and electronic measurement equipment; antenna pattern measurement’ both free-space and ground-influenced; unattended and physical security sensors; ground and airborne radar target resolution and MTI; precision instrumentation radars in a range configuration for position and track of aerial and ground vehicles; climatic and structural environmental chambers/equipment; calibrated nuclear radiation sources; electromagnetic compatibility, interference and vulnerability measurement and analysis; and other specialized facilities and equipment. The Proving Ground, working in conjunction with a DOD Area Frequency Coordinator, can create a limited realistic electronic battlefield environment. This capability is undergoing significant development and enhancement as a part of a program to develop and acquire the capability to test Army Battlefield Automation Systems, variously called C3I, C4, and/or CCS2 systems. The three principal elements of this capability which are all automated include: Systems Control Facility (SCF), Test Item Stimulator (TIS), and Realistic Battlefield Environment, Electronic (REBEEL). In addition to various instrumentation computers/processors, EPG currently utilizes a DEC Cyber 172, a DEC VAX 11-780, a DEC System 10, and has access to both a CDC 6500 and a 6600. Under the Army Development and Acquisition of Threat Simulators (ADATS) program, EPG is responsible for all non-air defense simulators. The availability of massive real estate in Southern Arizona, which includes more than 70,000 acres on Fort Huachuca, 23,000 acres at Willcox Dry Lake, and 1.5 million acres near Gila Bend, is a major factor in successful satisfaction of our test mission. Fort Huachuca itself is in the foothills of the Huachuca Mountains at an elevation of approximately 5,000 feet and has an average annual rainfall of less than 15 inches. Flying missions are practical almost every day of the year. The Proving Ground is ideally situated between two national ranges and provides overlapping, compatible instrumentation facilities for all types of in-flight test programs. The clear electromagnetic environment, the excellent climatic conditions, and the freedom from aircraft congestion make this an unusually fine area for electronic testing. The Proving Ground consists of a multitude of sophisticated resources, many of them unique in the United States, which are an integral part of the USAEPG test facility and have resulted from an active local research and development effort over a 28-year period.


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