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Refractivity fluctuations on an RCS test range: comparative measurement, characterization, and implications for calibration procedures
D. Stein (LTV Aerospace and Defense Company),Paul Burnett (Holloman Air Force Base) Jack Smith (Arizona State University) David Williams (The University of Texas at El Paso), November 1988

The performance of an outdoor, ground-plane RCS measurement range can be degraded by fluctuations in the atmospheric reflectivity N. These fluctuations can introduce error into RCS measurements, particularly when they do not manifest in the radar return from the secondary calibration standard. A propagation anomaly study at the RATSCAT RCS range compares the N-fluctuations -- obtained from meteorological instruments and separately from RF receivers -- at several levels above the ground. The fluctuation mechanisms are discussed in terms of temperature lapse rates, "constant-N" cell sizes, wind velocity, and rough ground effects. The optimal RF sensor height for propagation anomaly indications is found to depend on the cell size. This has implications for the positioning of secondary calibration standards.

A Wide band instrumentation radar system for indoor RCS measurement chambers
P. Swetnam (The Ohio State University),M. Poirier (The Ohio State University), P. Bohley (The Ohio State University), T. Barnum (The Ohio State University), W.D. Burnside (The Ohio State University), November 1988

An instrumentation radar system suitable for collection of backscatter characteristics of targets in an indoor chamber was built and installed in the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory. The radar is a pulsed system with continuous coverage from 2 to 18 GHz, and spot coverage from 26 to 36 GHz. The system was designed to have maximum flexibility for various test configurations, including complete control of the transmit waveform, H or V transmit polarization, dual receive channels for simultaneous measurement of like and cross polarization, greater than 100 dB dynamic range, and convenient data storage and processing. A personal computer controls the operation of the radar and is capable of limited data reduction and display functions. A mini-computer is used for more widely sophisticated data reduction and display functions along with data storage. This paper will present details of the radar along with measured performance capabilities of the system.

Applications of autoregressive spectral analysis to high resolution time domain RCS transformations
E. Walton (The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory), November 1988

Modern analysis techniques of radar scattering data or radar cross section (RCS) data often include transformation to the time domain for the purpose of understanding the specific scattering mechanisms involved or to isolate or identify specific scattering points. The classic technique is to transform from the frequency domain to the time domain using an inverse (Fast) Fourier Transform (IFFT). Often, however, the scattering centers are too close together to resolve or the requirement for accuracy in the measurement of the differential time delay is too high given the IFFT inverse bandwidth. This paper presents a technique for determining the time domain response of a radar target by processing the data using modern autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis. In this technique, the scattering from a radar target in the high frequency regime is shown to be autoregressive. This paper will show examples using the maximum entropy method (MEM) of Burg.

RCS errors due to target support structure
W.T. Wollny (Quick Reaction Corporation), November 1988

The deleterious effect of tilting the pylon on the measured RCS of a low level target is shown. A two scatterer computer model is developed to demonstrate the harmful effect of the pylon on the target signature. Predicted RCS plots are provided for the pylon to target ratios of -20, -10, 0, and +10 dB. The familiar error curve for two interfering signals is shown as applicable to bound the RCS errors of two scatterers. A method for computing the pylon RCS from linear motion RCS measurements is described with sample data plots. A knowledge of the pylon RCS allows the inclusion of measurement confidence levels on all RCS plots which is very valuable to the analyst. All radar data that is below the known RCS of the target support structure can be blanked from the plotted data to prevent confusion since these RCS values are an artifact of the measurement system and are not a true representation of the target RCS.

Target mounting techniques for compact range measurements
H. Shamansky (The Ohio State University),A. Dominek (The Ohio State University), November 1988

The compact range provides a means to evaluate the radar cross section (RCS) of a wide variety of targets, but successful measurements are dependent on the type of target mounting used. This work is concerned with the mounting of targets to a metal ogival shaped pedestal, and in particular focuses on two forms of mounting techniques: the "soft" (non-metallic) and "hard" (metallic) mounting configurations. Each form is evaluated from both the mechanical and electromagnetic viewpoints, and the limitations associated with each type are examined. Additional concerns such as vector background subtraction and target-mount interactions are also examined, both analytically and through measurements performed in the ElectroScience Laboratory's Anechoic Chamber.

The Radar image modeling system
R. Renfro (David Taylor Research Center), November 1988

The characteristics of a unique indoor RCS modeling facility are described. The David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) has implemented an indoor, over-water radar cross section measurement facility. Major components of the facility are the DTRC Seakeeping Basin, an imaging radar, an underwater target mount and rotator, a calibration system, and video monitoring equipment. Initial operational capabilities include dynamic pulse-to-pulse polarization-agile measurements at X and Ku bands, elevation angles from grazing to 7 degrees, maximum target length of 50 feet, and simulated sea states adjustable between state 0 and state 3. Several data products are available, including high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar images. Eventual capabilities will include extended elevation angles up to 30 degrees, frequencies to beyond 100 GHz, and SAR imagery.

Parasitic multimode/corrugated (PMC) feed for a compact range
W.A. Schneider (Boeing Aerospace Company), November 1988

The radar cross section of large targets has previously been measured on large outdoor far field ranges. Due to environmental and security limitations of outdoor ranges, low cost indoor compact ranges are preferred. To optimize compact range performance and to minimize size, careful attention must be paid to the design of feeds which are required for the proper illumination of the reflector. This paper describes a new polarization diversified parasitic multimode/corrugated (PMC) feed for a compact range reflector. The performance attributes of the PMC feed are presented. The PMC feed provides several advantages over other known commercially available compact range feeds.

Development of a small compact range facility
R.B. Dybdal (The Aerospace Corporation),Stewart G.E. (The Aerospace Corporation), November 1988

The development of a small compact range facility that has been integrated into an existing laboratory space is described. This facility uses a commercially available offset reflector with a 6 ft projected diameter and has sufficiently precise construction for operation at EHF frequencies. The edge diffraction degradation of the quiet zone is controlled by reducing the reflector edge illumination rather than using a complex edge treatment or a dual reflector design. Measured values of the quiet zone fields compare very well with calculated values. The facility can be used to measure antennas and radar targets whose dimensions do not exceed 20 in at high microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. The low cost and simplicity of this compact range design are key features.

A Roof top antenna range at Bellcore
A.R. Noerpel (Bellcore),A. Ranade (Bellcore), B.T. Lindsay (Bellcore), D. Devasirvathan (Bellcore), November 1988

A roof-top antenna range has been installed at the Bellcore facility in Red Bank, New Jersey. This facility is used as a far field range to measure highly directive antennas at millimeter wave frequencies. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed to characterize the range environment and identify reflections. Two computer programs were used to analyze the strength and location of interfering signals at both UHF and millimeter wave frequencies. These programs use Geometrical Optics and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction to predict the location and strength of diffracted and reflected energy from the surrounding structures. Both singly and doubly diffracted interferences were considered. A bi-static radar, with an 850 MHz carrier, bi-phase modulated by a 40 Mbit/s pseudonoise code, was used to measure the impulse response of the environment. The antenna range measurements are compared with the analysis done at 850 MHz and calculated results are printed for the behavior of the range in the millimeter wave regime.

A Modeling Technique for Predicting Anechoic Chamber RCS Background Levels
S. Brumley (Motorola Govt. Elect. Group), November 1987

Current demands for accurate low-level radar cross section (RCS) measurements require anechoic chambers and compact ranges to have extremely low background scattering levels. Such demands place difficult requirements on the entire chamber and warrant the need to predict and mathematically model chamber performance. Accurate modeling, prior to chamber construction, also aids in chamber performance optimization through improved chamber designs.

A Planar near-field scanner for the ERS-1 SAR antenna
K.V. Klooster (ESTEC/ESA),E. Romero (SENER), P. Malmborg (Ericsson), November 1987

A planar near-field scanner is described. It has an effective scan plane of more than 5 by 12 meter. The scanner will be used for the measurement of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna of the European Remote Sensing satellite ERS-1. The requirements are discussed and the results of the first mechanical verification measurements are presented.

Performance of the model 1606 compact range
G.M. Briand (Harris Corporation), November 1987

Characteristics of the Harris Model 1606 Compact Range are summarized and considered for applicability to RCS measurements. Measured characteristics of quiet zone performance (amplitude and phase distributions) and standard target RCS data are presented. Of particular interest is a comparison of predicted and measured radar cross section versus aspect angle of some familiar standard targets under various conditions.

Model 1603 compact range: a room sized measurement instrument
J.K. Conn (Harris Corporation), November 1987

Harris Corporation has developed and introduced a miniature version of its shaped compact range called the Model 1603. This model is actually a scaled version of its very large compact ranges. The range features a three foot quiet zone in a very compact configuration, allowing the range to be set up in an anechoic chamber as small as a normal conference room. Performance features are equivalent to those achieved in large compact ranges by Harris, such as the Model 1640 with a forty foot quiet zone. Key features are very low quiet zone ripple, extremely low noise floor, and low cross polarization. This range can be used for the full gamut of precision RCS testing of small models or precision testing of antennas. It should also find wide application in production testing of these items. Harris can also provide turnkey compact range test systems based on the Model 1603 that use available radar instrumentation. Several of these miniature compact ranges have been delivered and are in use.

Remodeling of the ESL-OSU Anechoic Chamber
H. Shamansky (The Ohio State University),A. Dominek (The Ohio State University), W.D. Burnside (The Ohio State University), November 1987

The indoor compact range has proven to be quite successful in measuring the radar cross section (RCS) of various targets. As the performance capabilities of the compact range have expanded, the use of larger, heavier, and more sophisticated targets has also expanded. Early target dimensions were limited by the size of the useful test area, as well as the capacities of the low RCS pedestal mount used. Today, our anechoic chamber has a large useful test area, thus the size and weight of targets dictate that a new method be employed in target handling and positioning, as well as target mounting to a low RCS pedestal. Work was recently completed here at the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory to remodel our anechoic chamber to allow for the new generation of targets and the demands that they place on the anechoic chamber. This work included the addition of a one ton motorized underhung bridge crane to our anechoic chamber, the design and construction of an hydraulic assist to smoothly and precisely raise and lower the target for the final linkup of the support column and the receiving hole in the target, the design and installation of a one ton telescopic crane in the chamber annex to link with the main chamber crane, the design and installation of the necessary microwave treatments to minimize the impact of the remodeling on accurate RCS measurements, the development and installation of a sloping raised floor, the design and manufacture of a track guided rolling cart to shuttle operating personnel to and from the target area, the replacement of the existing radar absorbing material, the improvement of the ambient lighting in the chamber to facilitate film and video tape documentation, and the development of new target mounting schemes to ensure ease of handling as well as secure mounting for vector background subtraction.

Evaluation of Anechoic Chambers
J. Schoonis (Grace-Emerson & Cuming), November 1987

This paper describes methods commonly used by anechoic chamber manufacturers to characterize chamber performance. Test procedures depend first on the purpose of the test; second on the purpose of the anechoic chamber and third on the amount of information required. Most anechoic chambers are built for a specific use. In order to prove its design, the test will be done accordingly. In most anechoic chambers one measures the reflectivity level because this is a measure for the accuracy on future measurements when the chamber is in operation. Anechoic chambers can vary from Antenna Pattern Test Chambers to Radar Cross Section Test Chambers, Electronic Warfare Simulation Chambers and Electro Magnetic Compatibility Test Chambers. Each type of chamber will have its specific evaluation technique. Some techniques can be done by the chamber user himself. Other methods need some special equipment that will or can only be used for that particular test method. Some customers want to do their own calibration on a regular basis. They can purchase this special equipment from the chamber manufacturer, if necessary. More complicated methods make use of computer controlled equipment. The data required can be taken in the chamber. This can be done relatively fast. All sorts of information about the chamber characteristics can be obtained in a later stage in a different format by use of the right software. This paper gives possible evaluation methods for different types of anechoic chambers. Detailed information about each method can be obtained from Emerson & Cuming.

Radar cross-section and scattering matrix measurements on microwave radar navigation targets
Y.M.M. Antar (National Research Council, Ottawa),L.E. Allan (National Research Council, Ottawa), S. Mishra (National Research Council, Ottawa), November 1987

This paper presents both radar cross section and polarization scattering matrix measurements on microwave radar navigation targets. The polarization measurements are performed using a unique two-channel facility which allows for measuring the circularly polarized scattering matrix elements at X-band. For the same targets conventional RCS measurements are performed using an automated system comprising a network analyzer (HP-8510) and a desk top computer system (HP-236 or 310). This system allows wide frequency range measurements. Details of these measurement techniques, and results will be presented.

A Pulsed/CW RCS measurement system using the HP8510 network analyzer
P.S. Kao (Massachusetts Institute of Technology),G.L. Sandy (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), J.A. Munoz (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), November 1987

This paper describes an automated, frequency-step, pulsed/CW Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurement system using the HP 8510 network analyzer. The system has been built using the concepts developed at Lincoln Laboratory (1) and is being utilized in an operational capacity. The unique features of this system are the use of (a) a dual-probe antenna for the transmission and reception of RF signals, and (b) a pulse system for separating the target-scattered signals from the incident and background signals. The single antenna configuration provides a true monostatic backscatter measurement. A polarization control circuit makes RCS measurements for all combinations of transmit/receive polarizations possible (linear and/or circular). The pulse system uses pin-diode switches capable of generating a 7-ns pulse width and a repetition rate up to 8 MHz. The pulse system effectively eliminates unwanted signals at ranges other than the target range. Therefore, the full dynamic range of the receiver can be used for the measurement of the target.

Polar format interpretation of wide band RCS data
J.C. Davis (Information Systems and Research, Inc.), November 1987

Narrow band RCS measurements are usually presented as RCS versus target aspect angle in either a rectangular or polar format. Wide band measurements are not normally analyzed in the frequency domain. The normal procedure is to perform either a one or two-dimensional Fourier transform of wide band data or obtain high resolution information on the location of scattering sources. In this paper, we investigate the possible uses of the wide band data directly. In particular, we show that a natural coordinate system for analysis of these data is a polar format with frequency taking on the polar distance parameter and aspect angle taking on the polar angle parameter. This format is not coincidentally, an intermediate step in the production of fully focused two-dimensional radar images. The polar format frequency domain plots are shown to be effective at categorizing the nature of the physical scattering. This is especially true when combined with image domain filtering to isolate scattering regions of interest. In addition, it can be useful in determining anomalies in the radar measurement system performance, and in assisting the analyst to explain unexpected image domain results.

ISAR measurement techniques applied to antenna measurements and diagnostics
R. Clark (System Planning Corporation),E.V. Sager (System Planning Corporation), J. Eckerman (System Planning Corporation), J. Eibling (System Planning Corporation), J. Stewart (System Planning Corporation), November 1987

A pulsed, coherent radar system was used in the inverse synthetic aperture radar mode to obtain 1-way high resolution images of simple antennas. These high resolution images display the amplitude and phase distribution of the received wave. The images were then edited and reconstructed using System Planning Corporation's Image algorithms contained in the SPC RPS software package. The 2-D (range vs. cross range) image data is very useful for detecting defects in antennas and can also 0be applied to modification of illumination conditions such as wavefront sphericity (phase taper) and/or amplitude variabilities (taper, ripple). This technique offers an alternate approach to near field/far field transformation. The technique involves rotation of the antenna under test at a controlled, uniform rate. The antenna port is connected to the radar receiver and the radar transmitter attached to an illuminating antenna. The radar transmits a step chirp wave form. The received signal is recorded to tape and processed off-line on the SPC Image Reduction Facility. A calibration technique was developed using simple wide bandwidth horn antennas. The downrange and cross range resolution of these 1-way ISAR antenna images is half as large as with 2-way radar ISAR for the same bandwidth and angular integration interval. Image data will be shown on reflector-type antennas to illustrate the technique.

Performance specification for diagnostic radar imaging systems
J.C. Davis (Information Systems and Research, Inc.), November 1987

High resolution radar imaging is becoming an increasingly important component of RCS measurement systems. The primary purpose of radar imaging as applied to RCS measurements is to locate and quantify the various scattering components that contribute to the total RCS of a model under test. The technique when properly applied by trained personnel can greatly improve the productivity of measurement programs by reducing the number of measurements needed to find defects in a model, and by rapid improvement in the understanding of the scattering phenomena itself.
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