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Radar
Radar cross section range characterization
L.A. Muth (National Institute of Standards and Technology),B. Kent (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base), J. Tuttle (Naval Air Warfare Center) R.C. Wittmann (National Institute of Standards and Technology), November 1996
Radar cross section (RCS) range characterization and certification are essential to improve the quality and accuracy of RCS measurements by establishing consistent standards and practices throughout the RCS industry. Comprehensive characterization and certification programs (to be recommended as standards) are being developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) together with the Government Radar Cross Section Measurement Working Group (RCSMWG). We discuss in detail the long term technical program and the well-defined technical criteria intended to ensure RCS measurement integrity. The determination of significant sources of errors, and a quantitative assessment of their impact on measurement uncertainty is emphasized. We briefly describe ongoing technical work and present some results in the areas of system integrity checks, dynamic and static sphere calibrations, noise and clutter reduction in polarimetric calibrations, quiet-zone evaluation and overall uncertainty analysis of RCS measurement systems.
Radar target scatter (RATSCAT) division low frequency range characterization
M. Husar (Air Force Development Test Center),F. Sokolowski (Johnson Controls World Services, Inc.), November 1996
The RATSCAT Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurement facility at Holloman AFB, NM is working to satisfy DoD and program office desires for certifies RCS data. The first step is to characterize the Low Frequency portion of the RATSCAT Mainsite Integrated Radar Measurement System (IRMS). This step is critical to identifying error budgets, background levels, and calibration procedures to support various test programs with certified data. This paper addresses characterization results in the 150 – 250 MHz frequency range. System noise, clutter, background and generic target measurements are presented and discussed. The use of background subtraction on an outdoor range is reviewed and results are presented. Computer predictions of generic targets are used to help determine measurement accuracy.
Acceptance of the Sanders Merrimack 23 compact range for RCS measurements
E.A. Urbanik (Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company),G. Boilard (Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company), November 1996
In 1993, we presented the newly completed compact range and tapered chamber facility [1]. As part of this presentation, the issue of “range certification” was presented. This paper will discuss the work that we have done with the compact range for radar cross section (RCS) measurement acceptance. For customer acceptance, we had to “prove” that the compact range made acceptable measurements for the fixtures and apertures involved. Schedule and funding did not permit the full exploitation of the uncertainty analysis of the chambers, not was it felt to be necessary [2]. The determination of our range capabilities and accuracy was based on system parameters and target measurements. Targets that were calculable either in closed form solutions (spheres) or by numerical methods (cylinders and rods) were used. Finally, range to range comparisons with the Rye Canyon Facility [3] of a standard target was used. The range to range comparison proved especially difficult due to customer exceptions, feed differences, and target mounting. This paper will discuss the “success” criteria applied, the procedures used, and the results. The paper will close with a discuss of RCS standards and the range certification process.
Region-of-interest radar imagery
A. Moghaddar (Aeroflex-Lintex Corp.), November 1996
It is shown that for dispersive scatterers, one cannot relate the intensity of the spatial response in the radar image to a particular location on the scatterer. For such cases, an imagery capable of characterizing both the spatial (dominant scattering centers) as well as spectral (resonant modes) wave objects. In the new image reconstruction, first a focusing point is selected for the image. The section of the image close to this focusing point provides good spatial resolution. As one moves away from the focusing point, the utilized bandwidth is reduced to provide good spectral resolution. The capabilities of the proposed imagery are illustrated using several examples.
Atomic decompositions of radar signals
N.S. Subotic,D.G. Pandelis, J. Burns, November 1996
In this paper we present a recently-developed adaptive method for decomposing radar signals into a wide range of physically meaningful mechanisms. The signal decomposition we will pursue is based on a set of functions referred to as “atoms” in the signal processing literature. These atoms can be derived from disparate mechanisms such as scattering center responses given by the Geometric Theory of Diffraction (GTD), which are localized in range, and resonance phenomena, which are localized in frequency. The atoms populate a “dictionary” of waveforms which are used to decompose radar signals. Traditional Fourier methods have restricted the class of atoms solely to harmonic exponentials. In this paper, we consider a number of signal decomposition methods. We chose a method based on the Basis Pursuit procedure of Chen and Donoho [1],which uses an L1 norm as opposed to a least squares approach to search the dictionary. We chose this technique because of its sparsity of representation and convergence properties. We will show results of this technique applied to numerically simulated data and show that disparate scattering mechanisms can be isolated and identified in the radar data.
On reducing primary calibration errors in radar cross section measurements
H. Chizever (Mission Research Corporation),Russell J. Soerens (Mission Research Corporation) Brian M. Kent (Wright Laboratory), November 1996
To accurately measure static or dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS), one must use precise measurement equipment and test procedures. Recently, several DoD RCS ranges, including the Advanced Compact RCS Measurement Range at Wright-Patterson AFB, established procedures to estimate measurement error. Working cooperatively with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Wright Laboratory established a baseline error budget methodology in 1994. As insight was gained from the error budget process, we noted that many common RCS measurement calibration techniques are subject to a wide variety of potential error sources. This paper examines two common so-polarized calibration devices (sphere and squat cylinder), and discussed techniques for evaluating calibration induced errors. A rigorous “double calibration” methodology is offered to track calibration measurement error. These techniques should offer range owners fairly simple methods to monitor the quality of their primary calibration standards at all times.
Polarimetric calibration of nonreciprocal radar systems
L.A. Muth (National Institute of Standards and Technology),R.C. Wittmann (National Institute of Standards and Technology), W. Parnell (Air Force Development Test Center), November 1996
The calibration of nonreciprocal radars has been studied extensively. A brief review of known calibration techniques points to the desirability of a simplified calibration procedure. Fourier analysis of scattering data from a rotating dihedral allows rejection of noise and background contributions. Here we derive a simple set of nonlinear equations in terms of the Fourier coefficients of the data that can be solved analytically without approximations or simplifying assumptions. We find that independent scattering data from an additional target such as a sphere is needed to accomplish this. We also derive mathematical conditions that allow us to check calibration data integrity and the correctness of the mathematical model of the scattering matrix of the target.
Dynamic ground-to-air radar imagery
D. Fleisch (Aeroflex Lintek Corp.),A. Moghaddar (Aeroflex Lintek Corp.), November 1996
Dynamic ground-to-air measurement of aircraft RCS has several advantages over static measurements. The target may be measured in flight configuration and the support pylon is eliminated. Although dynamic RCS imagery has been performed since the late 1970s, the cost and complexity of such measurements have limited their utility for routine testing. In this paper, an easily deployable ground-to-air radar imaging system developed by Aeroflex Lintek is presented. This system forms images of aircraft in straight flight, requiring no on-board instrumentation or special pilot training. The radar system, flight profiles, and processing tools required for generating images of aircraft in flight are presented, along with examples of measured target data.
Converting an RCS range for satellite antenna measurements
J. Way, November 1995
The Hughes Space and Communications Company (HSC) has recently undertaken the task to modify a RCS range once operated by Hughes Radar and Communications Systems, to accommodate the testing of Satellite Antennas. This measurement facility's configuration, design and current status will be discussed herein. This RCS range is located in El Segundo, California.
RFI measurement system for field sites, An
R.B. Dybdal,G.M. Shaw, T.T. Mori, November 1995
A portable system for measuring the RF environment at remote sites is described. A frequency range between 500 MHz and 18 GHz is covered by this system. The design, calibration and use of this system are discussed.
3-D low frequency radar target imaging
M.J. Gerry,E. Walton, November 1995
The imaging of radar targets is typically accom­ plished by measuring the radar cross section (RCS) of the target as a function of frequency and az­ imuth angle. We measure a third dimension of the RCS by tilting the target and collecting data for conical cuts of the RCS pattern. This third dimension of data provides the ability to estimate the three-dimensional location of scattering centers on the target. Three algorithms are developed in order to process the three-dimensional RCS data.
Study of DFT windows for radar imaging
P.S.P. Wei, November 1995
New windows which allow the user to select the level of sidelobe suppression near the DFT resolution limit are reported. By a parametric study, we identify the truncated Lorentzian and Gaussian functions as better choices compared with the popular Hann windows.
Converting an RCS range for satellite antenna measurements
J. Way, November 1995
The Hughes Space and Communications Company (HSC) has recently undertaken the task to modify a RCS range once operated by Hughes Radar and Communications Systems, to accommodate the testing of Satellite Antennas. This measurement facility's configuration, design and current status will be discussed herein. This RCS range is located in El Segundo, California.
Near-field/far-field transformation
E. Lebreton,J.R. Levrel, November 1995
RCS data measured under near-field conditions is corrected to the far-field. The algorithm uses the HUYGEN's principle approach. The processing technique is describes and validates using anechoic chamber data and simulations taken on flat plate target at a distance from the radar R << 2D2/A, where D is the target cross range extend and A the wavelength. Good agreement with the theoretically predicted far-field RCS patterns is obtained.
Analysis of amplitude dispersion in radar scattering using the MUSIC algorithm
M.J. Gerry,I.J. Gupta, November 1995
At high frequencies, the scattered fields from a radar target can be modeled as a sum of contri­ butions from a finite number of scattering centers. We use a parametric model based on the Geometric Theory of Diffraction (GTD) to estimate the location and type of scattering centers present in a frequency domain data set. The parameters of the model are estimated using a modified MUSIC algorithm that incorporates the GTD model. A new spatial smoothing algorithm is also introduced.
Progress in adaptive radar absorbing materials
B. Chambers,A.P. Anderson, P.V. Wright, T.C.P. Wong, November 1995
Possible mechanisms and structures for realising a dynamically adaptive radar absorbing material (DARAM) are discussed and their potential evaluated through computer simulation. Some pointers towards practical implementation are outlined and measured results for large-area DARAM panels operating over I and J bands are shown.
Unique antenna measurement test article platform for validation of computational electromagnetic models and algorithms
D. Warren,D.R. Pflug, T.W. Blocher, November 1995
A novel test article, the Transformable Scale Aircraft-Like Model (TSAM), which holds great promise for validating complex computational electromagnetic (CEM) codes more effectively is described. The novelty of TSAM is in the use of removable/replaceable canonical shaped structural components. The complexity in TSAM can be tailored to the modeling capabilities of the CEM code under test allowing discrepancies between measurement and simulation to be more explainable. A set of preliminary measurements on TSAM have been made and the results compared to calculations from the General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) program (1), a standard CEM code.
Accurate boresighting and gain determination techniques
M.A.J. van de Griendt,S.C. van Someren Greve, V.J. Vokurka, November 1995
Boresight and gain determination play an important role in antenna measurements. Traditionally, on outdoor ranges, optical methods are used to determine the boresight. Accuracy requirements better than 0.001 degrees are difficult if not impossible to obtain on outdoor ranges using these method since the effect of incident electromagnetic fields are not taken into account. On indoor ranges no technique is available at present that achieves the desired accuracy demands. In this paper, an improved method for boresighting will be presented. It will be shown that using this technique, desired accuracy demands on both outdoor and indoor can be obtained. Furthermore, the method can also be combined with accurate gain calibration. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique will be discussed.
Inverse synthetic aperture imaging studies of a ship at X-band
E. Walton,I.J. Gupta, L. Cai, November 1995
Techniques for the X-band inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a naval ship at sea are presented. We show that the longer the observation time (and thus the angle span), the better the image until a limit based on the pitch roll and yaw motion of the ship is reached. A Fourier transformation ISAR algorithm will be shown and a modified hybrid algorithm will be demonstrated using autoregressive spectral estimation. A hybrid algorithm based on data extrapolation obtained using FBLP coefficients will be demonstrated. Specific motion compensation tradeoffs will also be discussed.
State-of-the-art near-field measurement system
K. Haner,G. Masters, November 1995
Planar near-field measurements are the usual choice when testing phased array antennas. NSI recently delivered a large state-of-the-art near­ field measurement system for testing a multi­ beam, solid state phased-array antenna. The critical sidelobe and beam pointing accuracy specifications for the antenna required that special attention be paid to near-field system design. The RF path to the moving probe was implemented using a multiple rotary joint system to minimize phase errors. Additional techniques used to minimize system errors were an optical probe position correction system and a Motion Tracking Interferometer (MTI) for thermal drift correction.


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