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Applications of Interferoceiver for RCS Measurement and RF Imaging
M-C. Li, November 2006

It is widely known to radar engineers that the best radar receiver is a correlation receiver, which correlates the originally transmitted radar pulse with received pulses from the reflection. But the true correlation receiver could not yet be realized in past. The advancement of fiber optical technology changes that. The new and true correlation receiver, which has been referred to as interferoceiver, revolutionizes the technical foundation of radar and electronic warfare. The present talk discusses the use of the interferoceiver in advancing techniques of RCS measurement and RF imaging.

A Partial Rotation Formulation of the Circular Near Field-to-Far Field Transformation (CNFFFT)
S. Rice,I. LaHaie, November 2006

For many years now, General Dynamics has described the development, characterization, and performance of an image-based circular near-field-to-far-field transformation (CNFFFT) for predicting far-field radar cross-section (RCS) from near-field measurements collected on a circular path around the target. In this paper, we consider the CNFFFT algorithm as an azimuthal filtering process and develop a formulation capable of transforming data that is not measured over a full 360º. Such a formulation has applications in measurement scenarios where collection of a complete rotation is not practical. As part of the development, we provide guidelines for the near-field data support required to achieve a desired accuracy in the sub-360º CNFFFT result. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate that the results of this partial-rotation formulation are consistent with the full-circle CNFFFT results presented in past papers.

Optimization of Large Compact Range Reflector Installation and Verification Methodology
j. Aubin,C. Kelly, C. Nadovich, November 2006

A large rolled edge compact range system featuring a 12’H x 16’W quiet zone has been designed, fabricated, installed, and tested in a large aerospace test facility. During the program, a high precision alignment methodology was utilized in conjunction with electromagnetic prediction capability to verify both mechanical and electrical performance while still under trial assembly conditions at the factory. A coherent laser radar (CLR) was utilized to measure the reflector surface on a very fine grid, and the electromagnetic (EM) quiet zone performance was calculated from the raw CLR data using a Physical Optics (PO) model. Despite extremely high surface accuracy of the panels, this evaluation methodology highlighted systematic alignment errors in the reflector system, and guided the process of correcting these errors to achieve a final factory verification assembly for the entire 20’H x 24’W reflector system of better than 0.001” over the quiet zone section of the reflector, and 0.004” rms over the entire reflector. This procedure was also utilized for the on-site installation to achieve alignment of the reflector to an AUT positioning system using the CLR, as the positioning system and chamber were already existing and operational. Thus, it was required to align the reflector to the positioning system, and not the positioning system to the reflector as is usually the case. A unique vertical carousel feed system was also aligned using this procedure. Predicted EM results were again used to finalize alignment on site prior to quiet zone field probe evaluation. This paper summarizes the overall alignment and EM evaluation process, and presents results for the installed compact range reflector system.

A Theoretical Model of a Lossy Dielectric Slab for the Characterization of Radar System Performance Specifications
G. Charvat,E. Rothwell, November 2006

Some radar applications require a system to acquire range profile or S11 network analyzer data through a lossy dielectric layer to measure something behind that lossy dielectric layer. It is often difficult to specify the dynamic range requirements of such a system due to the “flash” of initial reflected transmitted energy from the lossy dielectric layer. It is also difficult to determine the most effective architecture for such a system, such as pulse IF, ultra-wideband impulse, FMCW, or another more exotic architecture. In this paper a theoretical model is developed of a lossy dielectric layer, a radar transmitter and receiver, and a standard radar target on the other side of the lossy dielectric layer. The theoretical results from this model provide insight into the dynamic range requirements for any radar system that must acquire range profile data or S11 network analyzer data through a lossy dielectric of any permeability, permittivity, and conductivity at any microwave or RF frequency range in order to measure something behind that lossy dielectric layer.

EM Propagation in Jet Engine Turbines
E. Walton,J. Moore, J. Young, K. Davis, November 2006

There is interest in the propagation of EM signals inside jet engine turbines for a number of reasons. Applications include radar scattering phenomenology and jet engine plasma plume formation studies. In our research, we are interested in the communication channel characteristics for micro-size wireless sensors attached to the turbine blades that measure parameters such as strain and temperature. Propagation measurements were performed on both F-16 (F-110) and Boeing 747 (CF6-50) turbines. The frequency band extended from 2 to 20 GHz (wavelengths longer than the turbine blades to wavelengths shorter than the gap between turbine blades). Signals were propagated with both radial and circumferential polarization. Both transmission and scattering measurements were made from both the inlet and the outlet. We also used small probe antennas inserted in boreholes between turbine stages. A range of blade positions were included. We will show the propagation characteristics as a function of polarization, frequency and time (UWB time domain transformations). We will also show the internal radar reflection characteristics of the turbine as a function of various stator blade rotation angles. Comparisons with a hybrid mathematical propagation model will be given.

Time domain Planar Near-Field Measurement Simulation
X. Shen,X. Chen, November 2006

The UWB radar operates simultaneously over large bandwidth and the antenna parameters must refer to simultaneous performance over the whole of the bandwidth. Conventional frequency domain (FD) parameters like pattern, gain, etc. are not adequate for UWB antenna. This paper describes an UWB radar antenna planar near field (PNF) measurement system under construction to get the impulse response or transient characteristic of the UWB antenna. Unlike the conventional antenna or RCS time domain test system, the UWB radar signal instead of the carrier-free short time pulse was used to excite the antenna that can avoid the decrease of the dynamic range and satisfy the needs of SAR and the other UWB radar antennas measurement. In order to demonstrate the data analysis program, FDTD simulation software was used to calculate the E-field of M×N points in a fictitious plane at different times just like the actual oscilloscope’s sampling signals in the time domain planar near field (TDPNF) measurement. The calculated results can be considered the actual oscilloscope’s sampling output signals. Through non-direct frequency domain near field to far field transform and direct time domain near field to far field transform, we get the almost same radiation patterns comparing to the FD measurements and software simulation results. At last, varied time windows were used to remove the influences of the non-ideal measurement environment.

The RCS Calibration Uncertainty of Balloon Tethered Spheres For Outdoor RCS Measurement Systems
B. Kent,A. Buterbaugh, L. Cravens, T. Coveyou, W. Forster, November 2006

Hollow metallic aluminum spheres have been used for years for calibrating RCS measurement systems both indoors and outdoors. While many previous papers have identified the RCS calibration shortfalls associated with spheres [1,2], most of these papers have concentrated on indoor RCS measurement systems, where there exist a number of accurate calibration alternatives to spheres, including the so-called "squat cylinder" [3,4]. For outdoor free space RCS measurement systems, especially those designed to measure dynamically moving or changing targets, (i.e. the NASA Shuttle C-Band Debris Radar), calibration is a much tougher problem. Frequently, spheres are used to calibrate such systems, by releasing and tracking a sphere attached to a lighter-than-air balloon, or by tethering a sphere to a lighter-than -air balloon and allowing it to float through a fixed radar beam. Recently, the Air Force Research Laboratory Mobile Diagnostic Laboratory (MDL) had the opportunity to measure the clutter and uncertainty associated with balloon tethered Sphere RCS calibrations. Two spheres were measured suspended by various string types and a line under an 8 ft. diameter tethered Helium filled balloon. We will provide design guidance, signal processing techniques and measurement uncertainty to help minimize the clutter and error induced by balloon borne RCS calibration spheres.

Obtaining High Quality RCS Measurements with a Very Large Foam Column
M.C Baggett,T. Thomas, November 2005

A large compact range facility required a foam column for RCS testing where the center of the quiet zone was six meters above the floor level. The RCS measurement after vector background subtraction, had to be accurate down to a –50 dBsm level from 1.5 GHz to 40 GHz. A foam column was constructed from a single billet of material. The foam column was evaluated as to its RCS level in both whole body and ISAR imaging modes. This paper describes the specification, construction and RCS evaluation of this column in the compact range facility. The column was evaluated at single frequencies and with RCS images from 2 GHz to 36 GHz using a gated CW radar. Data is presented that shows the effects of the column on the response of a calibration sphere and the response of the column itself. A study of the foam column imaging response used as the background for vector background subtraction is also described. Targets in the –60 dBsm range were successfully imaged with vector background subtraction of the foam column.

RCS Measurements of LO-Targets in a High Clutter Environment using SAR and ISAR
C.U.S. Larsson,C-G. Svensson, O. Ahnlund, November 2005

ABSTRACT Conventional radar cross-section measurement ranges have limitations. Indoor anechoic chamber ranges have limitations with respect to the size of the objects that can be measured. Outdoor RCS ranges cannot be used in bad weather conditions and also pose a security problem when the designs are classified or proprietary. Limitations in availability are also common for both outdoor and indoor ranges. An alternative is to use a conventional lab area. The key to successful measurements of LO-targets in such high clutter environments is efficient coherent background subtraction. Coherent background subtraction was performed for ISAR and SAR and compared to the zero-Doppler subtraction method for ISAR in this study. The results from the measurements are compared with calculated results. We find that the ISAR and SAR techniques are comparable in performance but that it is advantageous to use ISAR for small objects due to practical reasons. We conclude that both SAR and ISAR can be utilized for LO targets.

Measurement of Backscattering from RFID Tags
P. Nikitin,KVS. Rao, November 2005

This paper presents a method for measuring signal backscattering from an RFID tag and calculating tag radar cross-section (RCS), which depends on the chip input impedance. We present a derivation of a theoretical formula for RFID tag radar cross-section and an experimental RCS measurement method using a network analyzer connected to an antenna in an anechoic chamber where the tag is also located. The return loss of the antenna measured with and without the tag present in the chamber allows one to calculate the power backscattered from the tag and find tag RCS. Measurements were performed in anechoic chamber using RFID tag operating the base station (called “RFID reader”). RFID tag antenna is loaded with the chip whose impedance switches between two impedance states, usually high and low. At each impedance state, RFID tag presents a certain radar cross section (RCS). The tag sends the information back by varying its input impedance and thus modulating the back-scattered signal.

Electromagnetic Interference Attenuation of Test of the Space Shuttle Discovery using the Air Force Research Laboratory Mobile Diagnostic Laboratory
B. Kent,A. Griffith, A.L. Buterbaugh, J. Watkins, K. Freundl, L. Cravens, R. Scully, T Coveyou, November 2005

As NASA prepared the Space Shuttle for its first return to flight mission (STS-114) in July of 2005, a number of new visual and radar sensors were used during the critical ascent phase of the flight to assess if unintentional debris was liberated from the Shuttle as it raced into orbit. New high-resolution C-Band and X-Band radars were used to help ascertain the location and speed of released debris. We also used both radars to monitor debris generated by routine flight events such as Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation. To assure these new radars did not interfere with flight-critical engine subsystems, an Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) measurement was performed on the Shuttle Orbiter "Discovery" in January 2005, using the Air Force Research Laboratory's Mobile Diagnostic Laboratory (MDL). This portable EM Measurement system performed a large number of attenuation measurements the night of January 17-18, 2005. This paper describes how the attenuation data was acquired, and the methodology used to reduce the data to predict average attenuation of the radar energy from the outside world to the inside of the aft engine bay of the Orbiter. This data was combined with a separate NASA-performed avionics EMI analysis to demonstrate that the new C and X-Band Debris Radars could be operated without adversely interfering with the Orbiter aft bay Avionics systems.

Measurements of the CloudSat Collimating Antenna Assembly Experiences at 94 GHz on Two Antenna Ranges
J. Harrell,A. Prata, C. Lee-Yow, C. Stubenrauch, L.R. Amaro, R. Beckon, T.A. Cariveau, November 2005

This paper presents measurements of the CloudSat Collimating Antenna (CA) as fabricated for the 94.05 GHz CloudSat radar, which is to be used to measure moisture profiles in the atmosphere. The CloudSat CA is a 3 reflector system consisting of the 3 "final" (relative to the transmitted energy) reflecting surfaces of the CloudSat instrument. This assembly was fed by a horn designed to approximate the illumination from a Quasi-Optical Transmission Line (QOTL). This same horn was employed as a "standard" for measurement of the CA gain via substitution, and its patterns were also measured (this substitution represents a departure from the standard insertion loss technique in the near field range). The CloudSat CA presented a substantial measurement challenge because of the frequency and the electrical size of the aperture is approximately 600 wavelengths in diameter, with a nominal beamwidth of 0.11 degrees. In addition, very high accuracy was needed to characterize the lower sidelobe levels of this antenna. The CA measurements were performed on a 3122-ft outdoor range (this distance was 41% of the far field requirement), which were immediately followed by measurements in an indoor cylindrical Near Field (NF) range. The instrumentation challenges, electrical, mechanical, and environmental are described. Comparison of the outdoor vs. indoor pattern data is presented, as well as the effect of the application of tie-scans to the near field data.

MUSIC 3D Bistatic High Resolution Imaging: A Theoretical Point of View
Y. Morel,O. Vacus, S. Morvan, November 2005

The use of “Spectral Analysis” algorithm in RADAR imaging is mainly motivated by the fact that RADAR signals are supposed to follow a very convenient model which says that the target echo (its scattering coefficient) can be decomposed into elementary scatterers, and that it can be modelled with a sum of complex exponential functions. This “high frequency” approach leads to the extensive use of Fourier imaging. When resolution becomes poor, due to the fact that the extent of the set of data is too small, one invokes High Resolution Algorithms like MUSIC or ESPRIT. This becomes particularly the case at low frequencies, where such a model is not valid anymore. The aim of the paper is to show that the use of the MUSIC algorithm can be related theoretically to the “characteristic fields” decomposition of the scattered electromagnetic field. The Harrington-Mautz “characteristic currents” theory leads to a decomposition of the bistatic scattering matrix of the target allowing naturally the use of the MUSIC algorithm to reconstruct the target. We show an application of this on a F117 calculated dataset. 3D bistatic images are obtained.

Monochromatic Multistatic Radar Imaging
J.C. Castelli,T. Jimenez, November 2005

ABSTRACT Conventional radar imaging techniques combine information in angle and frequency to obtain the location of the scatterers which contribute to the radar cross section (RCS) of a target. From these information, supposing that the scatterers have a white and isotropic behavior, a high resolution 2D image can be built. However, in certain circumstances (for example low frequency), the narrowness of the available frequency band and/or the frequency dependence of the scatterers may limit the resolution of the produced images. To circumvent this difficulty, an imaging technique based on multistatic data at fixed frequency is proposed. The use of monochromatic data to image a target was already studied in monostatic configuration. In this case, even if the resolution is very fine, the presence of high sidelobe which decrease slowly limits this technique to target’s reflectivity produced by a limited number of reflectors. In multistatic configuration, the situation is more favorable because weighting functions can be applied to control the level of the sidelobes. To illustrate the performances of this imaging technique, images obtained from the response of various targets measured at low frequencies are presented. Keywords: multistatic RCS, monochromatic radar imaging,

Hand Held Imaging Verification Radar for LO Platforms Using Radar/Target Location Registration
A. Moghaddar,L. Sheffield, R.C. Reynolds, R.J. Jost, November 2005

A portable, handheld imaging verification radar (HIVeR) system is designed to verify the RCS integrity of a low observable (LO) platform. The HIVeR is the latest generation to a previously designed and field-tested system (SARBAR) that produced radar images of targets in real-time. For applications with LO aircraft, an objective of the present technology is to extend the first-generation SARBAR system performance to easier use, higher sensitivity, and effective pass/fail decisions for selected regions on the aircraft outer mold line (OML). A novelty of the HIVeR design is an automatic registration scheme incorporated into the radar set. The location and orientation of the HIVeR unit is continually recorded using a precision position and orientation monitoring system. This registration process locates the handheld radar antenna position and orientation with respect to a fixed coordinate system. Similarly, the region-of-interest (ROI) on the aircraft surface is registered in this fixed coordinate system. An important feature of the new HIVeR is its capability to form calibrated radar images along a surface defined by the OML of the LO aircraft. This enables the radar to produce images that can be related to the RCS integrity of the ROI. The image along the OML can be used for pass/fail decision-making by comparing the image with a “gold standard” image for the same region.

Angular Errors In Polarimetric Radar Cross Section Calibration Using A Rotating Dihedral
L Muth,C. William, D. Morales, T. Conn, November 2005

We examine how accurately the transmit and receive parameters of a radar cross section measurement sys­tem can be determined by use of a rotating dihedral as the polarimetric calibration device. We derive expres­sions for the errors due to misalignment in the angle of rotation. We obtain expressions for the angles a0,hv and a0,vh for which the measured cross-polarization ratios of a target vanish. Since the theoretical cross-polarization of a cylinder is 0, we can .nd the calibra­tion bias-correction angles. We use simulated and real data to demonstrate the robustness of this bias-angle correction technique. We derive expressions for the uncertainty in the polarimetric system parameters.

The Long String as a Field Probe
E. Knott,P.S. Wei, November 2005

wall or ceiling. The resulting motion changes the angle of the The incident field in the test zone can be measured using one-way string with respect to the incident field direction, during which probe antennas or passive two-way reflectors. In most cases time the coherent radar echo is recorded as a function of the string neither the probe antenna nor the passive reflector is very large, angle. The coherent signal-vs-angle data are then transformed to usually only a few wavelengths at best. It must be rolled across the cross-range domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the range on carriages or raised up and down on towers, and the whence we obtain a chart of the incident field amplitude as a distance moved must somehow be measured. If a passive function of cross-range distance. Numerical examples are reflector is used as a probe, the carriage system must be shielded presented that show how variations in the incident field influence with absorbers and the reflector must be mounted on low-the string echo. A sample of experimental data shows that the reflectivity support structures. In addition to the hazard of processed data are readily interpreted. contaminating reflections, the mere assembling of all this equipment can be a significant task.

An Improved Version of the Circular Near-Field to Far-Field Transformation (CNFFFT)
I. LaHaie,C. Coleman, S. Rice, November 2005

For many years now, GDAIS has described the devel­opment, characterization, and performance of an image-based circular near field-to-far field transformation (CNFFFT) for predicting far-field radar cross-section (RCS) from near-field measurements collected on a cir­cular path around the target. In this paper, we present an improved version of the algorithm that avoids a sta­tionary phase approximation inherent in earlier ver­sions of the technique. The improvement is realized by modifying the range-domain weighting used to imple­ment the frequency derivative in the existing method. A similar modification was presented in the context of lin­ear near-field measurements in an earlier AMTA paper. Numerical simulations are presented that demonstrate the improvement afforded by the technique in predict­ing far-field RCS patterns from near-field data collected using typical bandwidths and standoff distances. An additional benefit of the revised algorithm is that it readily admits a formulation that includes antenna pat­tern compensation, as described in a companion paper.

Antenna Pattern Correction for the Circular Near Field-to-Far Field Transformation (CNFFFT)
I. LaHaie,C. Coleman, S. Rice, November 2005

In previous work [1], we presented an antenna pattern compensation technique for linearly-scanned near field measurements. In this paper, we present a similar tech­nique to mitigate the errors from uncompensated azi­muthal antenna pattern effects in circular near-field monostatic radar measurements. The antenna pattern co mpensation is implemented as part of an improved algorithm for transforming the near-field measurements to the far-field RCS. A description of this improved circular near field-to-far field transformation CNFFFT technique for isotropic antennas is presented in a com­panion paper [2]. In this paper, we formulate the near-field signal model in the presence of an azimuthal an­tenna pattern under the same scattering approximation used in the isotropic CNFFFT. Using this model, we derive a modified version of the CNFFFT that includes antenna pattern compensation. Numerical simulations are presented that demonstrate the ability of the tech­nique to remove antenna pattern errors and improve the accuracy of the far field RCS patterns and sector statistics.

Development, Measurement and Analysis of a Sixteen Element Stacked Patch Microstrip Array for Remote Sensing Applications
K. Kona,Y. Rahmat-Samii, November 2005

A low-profile, high efficiency sixteen-element stacked patch microstrip array operating in the L-band frequencies of 1.26GHz and 1.413GHz was designed, fabricated and tested for use in applications to airborne sensors operating on small aircrafts. The array was optimized for element spacing, excitation amplitude taper, low cross-polarization and high beam-efficiency using Particle-Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. The design and measurement of sixteen-element array topology, stacked patch elements, and power-divider beam forming network are presented in detail. The study highlights the repeatability measurements and characterization of array with the effect of dielectric radomes in a spherical near-field test facility at UCLA. The results met the requirements of center-frequencies and frequency­bands(1.26GHz ± 10MHz, 1.413GHz ± 15MHz), side-lobes, very good beam-efficiency (>90%) and low-cross polarization (<-40dB) in main-beam region of array. The measured results compared well with simulations for the two frequencies. Based on measurement results, the microstrip array design has a potential to be used as a feed for deployable mesh antennas for future spaceborne L-band passive and active sensing systems that can operate at integrated active radar (1.26GHz) and passive radiometer (1.413GHz) frequencies with dual polarization capabilities to study soil-moisture and sea-surface salinity.
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