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Instrumentation
Errors analysis of near-field measurement
G. Seguin,T. Pellerin, November 1997
The objective of this study is to evaluate the measurement errors of a near-field range at in order to develop some techniques to minimize them. Measurements were performed on a standard gain horn as references. The methodology presented demonstrates that it is feasible to calculate the far-field radiation from near-field measurement with one deconvolution that will include all the errors introduced by the instrumentation
Rocket motor plume measurement facility
W.W. Harrington, November 1997
The Plume Measurement Facility is a new outdoor facility providing the capability to characterize tactical rocket motor plumes. Radar cross section of the plume is measured by both a near field and a far field radar. Infrared/ultraviolet/visible (IR/UVNIS) charac­ teristics are measured by numerous instruments recording spacial, temporal, and spectral data. All instrumentation is calibrated and adjusted to realtime standard day meteorological data and all data is recorded on a common synchronized time base.
Turnkey near-field measurement system for pulse mode applications, A
D.S. Fooshe,K. Thompson, M. Harvey, November 1997
NSI recently delivered a Turnkey Near-field Antenna Measurement System (TNAMS) to the Naval Surface Warfare Center - Crane Division (NSWC-CD) in Crane Indiana. The system supports characterization and calibration of the Navy's active array antennas. TNAMS includes a precision 12' x 9' vertical planar near-field robotic scanner with laser optical position measurement system, dual source microwave instrumentation for multiple frequency acquisition, and a wide PRF range pulse mode capability. TNAMS is part of the Active Array Measurement Test Bed (AAMTB) which supports testing of high power active arrays including synchronization with the Navy's Active Array Measurement Test Vehicle (AAMTV), now under development. The paper summarizes the hardware configuration and unique features of the pulse mode capability for high power phased array testing and the TNAMS interface to the AAMTV and AAMTB computers. In addition, range test data comparing antenna patterns with various pulse characteristics is presented.
Practical considerations for making pulsed antenna measurements
C. Barnett,D. Dunn, November 1997
Antenna designs continue to evolve and change as the telecommunications market expands, and current trends are towards more complex and higher performance antennas. In particular active transmit/receive (T/R) modules have enabled manufacturers to build antennas with multiple beams and significantly improved performance. These antennas present challenges for performance verification and testing not previously encountered in continuous wave (CW) antenna measurements. For example, testing in a pulsed operating mode, multiple beam state testing and testing in high power transmit and low power receive modes. This paper examines pulsed antenna measurements and considerations for the range design. An instrumentation configuration is presented for a pulsed far-field antenna range.
Analysis of radar measurement system stability factors, A
J. Matis,K. Farkas, November 1997
Instrumentation Radar systems evolution includes improved stability. Metrologists know frequency within Hertz. Amplitude and Phase variations are low. Ranges check drift with reference systems. Still, with increased capability, expectations of accuracy have increased. Todays instrumentation makes analysis of stability factors practical. This study analyzes Radar Cross Section (RCS) return of a stable target under controlled conditions. Methodology will be an analysis of a constant RCS target return. The target is a stable object at a typical measurement site. Data points are at several discrete frequencies in bands between S and Ku. This study sample is a set of data taken over a 87 hour span with several duty factors. Duty factors will range from minimal 0.1% to 1.5%, near the 2% maximum for the output amplifiers. Acquisition times for data sets are chosen for outdoor temperatures ranging from hot -- desert afternoon -- through cool in the early morning. This data will be analyzed statistically. If statistical correlations exist, analysis will quantify factor contributions with multiple linear regression. Hypothesis: Drift does not correlate to variables such as duty factor, & temperature.
Integrated antenna/RCS/EMI compact range based measurement facility, An
D.R. Frey,A. Charland, J.R. Aubin, R. Flam, November 1997
ORBIT/FR has recently delivered an integrated facility capable of being used for Antenna, Radar Cross Section (RCS), and EMI measurements to the Naval Underwater Warfare Center in Newport, RI. The facility includes a shielded anechoic chamber, a compact range system capable of producing a 6 foot diameter quiet zone, multi-axis positioning equipment, and a complete complement of Antenna, RCS, and EMI measurement instrumentation and data collection hardware/software. The facility is capable of operation over a frequency range of 100 MHz to 50 GHz, with compact range operation feasible above 2 GHz. The facility can be reconfigured to go between antenna and RCS measurements in any band using both frequency band and antenna/RCS mode switching. In addition, automatic positioning of the appropriate compact range feed to the reflector focal point is available. EMI measurements require minimal relocation of absorber in an isolated area of the chamber floor. Performance of the system is optimized by location of critical RF equipment on the compact range feed carousel or on the positioning system rail carriage. This system offers a unique combination of performance and convenience for making all three types of measurements.
Three-Dimensional Imaging From Compact Range Data
D.L. Mensa,K. Vaccaro, W.T. Yates, November 1998
The collection of radar scattering data necessary for imaging targets with three-dimensional resolution requires frequency diversity, combined with angular diversity over two orthogonal axes fixed to the target. Although the necessary data can easily be collected using modern instrumentation systems when the target is outfitted with an embedded two-axis rotator, some applications preclude the intrusion of the rotator. This paper describes an alternative method for obtaining the required data which uses conventional target rotation in the azimuth plane, combined with a linear displacement of the compact range feed along the vertical axis of the collimator's focal plane. Frequency diversity is provided by a stepped-frequency radar and angular diversities in the horizontal and vertical directions are provided by the target rotation and vertical feed displacement, respectively. The data-collection scheme samples a wedge-shaped volume of the target spatial spectrum (k-space) with radial and angular extents de­ terminated by the bandwidth and target rotation relative to the radar axis. A three-dimensional image is formed by processing a three-dimensional array of data, typically consisting of 128xll8x128 data samples. The paper describes the experimental set-up used to collect Ku-band data and presents two- and three­ dimensional images obtained from the data. Considerations of the following issues are addressed in the paper. 1. Aberrations resulting from displacing the feed from the collimator focal point. 2. Control of the linear feed displacement, target rotation, and radar operation to automate the data collection. 3. Methods for calibrating and aligning the data. 4. Signal processing methods which combine wide­band, ISAR and spotlight SAR processing for three-dimensional applications. 5. Clutter suppression using zero-Doppler filtering.
Radar Cross Section (RCS) Range Enhancements at Eglin's Seeker Test & Evaluation Facility (STEF)
W.C. Parnell, November 1998
The Seeker Test and Evaluation Facility (STEF) located on Range C-52A at Eglin AFB FL. is used to perform high-resolution multispectral (EO-IR-RF-MMW) signature measurements of US and foreign ground vehicles primarily to support the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) of smart weapons (seekers, sensors and Countermeasure techniques). In order to support two major DOD signature measurement programs in 1997 this facility required significant range upgrades and enhancements to realize reduced background levels, increase measurement accuracy and improve radar system reliability. These modifications include the addition of a 350'X 120' asphalt ground plane, a new secure target support facility, a redesigned low RCS shroud for the target turntable and a new core radar system (Lintek elan) and data acquisition/analysis capability for the existing radars Millimeter-Wave Instrumentation, High Resolution, Imaging Radar System - MIHRIRS). This paper describes the performance increase gained as a result of this effort and provides information on site characterization and radar instrumentation improvements as well as examples of measured RCS of typical ground vehicle signatures and ISAR imagery
Verification of Antenna Radiation Patterns and Scattering Returns (RCS) of Full Size Targets Using Missile Engagement Simulation Arena (MESA) Facility (NAWCWPNS, China Lake CA) Radar System, and a Hardware in the Loop Radar System
L.L. Mandeville,J.P. McQuire, November 1998
Most often when performing antenna and RCS measurements, integrating the results is performed with some type of computer generated simulation or model of the application scenario. In the case of Missile Engagements for Fuze Radars, there is an opportunity to engage full size targets in a near real engagement. The missile fuze antenna can be mounted on the test cart which is able to position the fuze antenna in azimuth, pitch and roll. For instrumentation the MESA Facility has available a PN coded BiPhase multi-range gate radar system. Various Full size targets are available for use in the arena. The target are positioned for a multitude of trajectories utilizing an overhead target positioning system. The Overhead Target Positioning System suspends and moves the targets using a multipoint string system that controls, Pitch, Roll, height, and azimuth positioning. The Overhead Target Positioning System (OTS) is also controlled in lateral movement. (across the range) This paper will show the verification of antenna patterns and RCS returns of full size targets using the MESA Radar system, and verification of these measurements using a hardware in loop fuze radar system simultaneously.
High Precision Dual Test Mode-Based Antenna Measurement Facility, A
J.F. Aubin,D.R. Frey, J. Caserta, W. Kohler, November 1998
ORBIT/FR has recently designed an antenna measurement facility that combines a unique encoder­ based positioning system with the ability to test antenna systems in both transmitting and receiving modes of operation. This combination allows for the testing of high precision military, space borne, and commercial antennas and systems in their final, deliverable configuration. The system features a high precision roll over slide over azimuth positioning system, with angular precision of 0.001-0.002 degrees available. In addition, accurately located roll axes can be interchanged to accommodate various size classes of antennas. As part of the positioning system design, an extremely low profile AL- 060 roll axis provides for non-intrusive positioning of very small antennas. Automatic mode switching allows the antenna under test to be tested in either a transmit or receive mode of operation without operator intervention required. The system features the FR959 Automated Antenna Measurement Workstation and HP 8530 based RF instrumentation for data acquisition and control. The system is designed for operation over a frequency range of 800 MHz to 40 GHz. Band switching also allows for contiguous operation of the instrumentation, limited only by the available probe antennas utilized with the system.
Development of a 310 GHz Hologram Compact Antenna Test Range
J. Saily,A. Lehto, A.V. Raisanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, J. Hakli, J. Tuovinen, November 1999
The development and measured performance of a hologram type compact antenna test range (CATR) for submillimetre wavelengths are presented. A 60 cm diameter hologram has been designed for the 310 GHz CATR. The instrumentation used for the compact range performance verification is described. This includes a millimetrewave vector network analyzer with alternative source oscillator configurations. Finally, future improvements to the hologram CATR such as a dual-reflector feed system are discussed.
Compact Antenna Test Range Built to Meet the Unique Testing Requirements for Active Phased Array Antennas, A
R. Sauerman,C. Stoffels, November 1999
Microwave Instrumentation Technologies (MI Technologies) in cooperation with Hollandse Signaalapparaten B.V. (Signaal) and the Royal Netherlands Navy has designed and produced a compact antenna test range to specifically address the unique testing requirements imposed in the testing of active phased array antennas. The compact range was built specifically to test Signaal's new Active Phased Array Radar (APAR) prior to introduction into various naval fleets throughout the world. This reversible Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR) allows antenna testing in both transmit and receive modes. The measurement hardware is capable of testing both CW and pulsed waveforms with high dynamic range. In addition to conventional antenna pattern measurements the system is capable of measuring EIRP, Gff and G/NF, as well as providing analysis software to provide aperture reconstruction. A special Antenna Interface Unit (AIU) was designed and built to communicate with the Beam Steering Computer which controls the thousands of T/R modules which make up the APAR antenna system. A special high power absorber fence and other safeguards were installed to handle the transmit energy capable of being delivered from the APAR antenna system.
Real-Time Far Field Antenna Measurement by Using A-MST Probe Arrays in the Focal Region of a Compact Range
Ph. Garreau,J.M. Lopez, K. Van't Klooster, P. Dumon, November 1999
This paper is focused on a recent installation of a probe array for direct far-field. measurement. Such an array has been installed in a well-established compact antenna test range at CNES called BCMA in Toulouse, France. It describes the interests of using such multi-sensor approach for characterizing directive antennas within far-field conditions without any mechanical movements. The paper shows how this facility has been dimensioned for operating over frequencies ranging from 7 GHz up to 15 GHz. Performances and general descriptions of both the probe array and its associated instrumentation will be given. A specific calibration procedure that has been studied and implemented is discussed and finally preliminary results are shown.
SAR Interferometry for Structural Changes Detection
D. Leva,A.J. Sieber, D. Tarchi, H. Rudolf, November 1999
The interferometric measurements for the structure­ change detection of a dam due to water level change and to seasonal temperature variation is presented. The instrument used is the Linear SAR (LISA) of the European Microwave Signature Laboratory, which allows two synthetic apertures, one linear of 5 meters length and another circular of about 2 meters. The microwave instrumentation, based on a vector network analyzer and on a pair of wide-band antenna, allows a dual polarized measurement in a frequency band, ranging from 500 MHz to 6 GHz. In this particular context, fully polarimetric measurements have been performed in the frequency band from 5.2 to 6 GHz. From the selected measurements parameters a spatial resolution on the structure of about 30 by 30-cm is achieved. Measurements have been repeated at 7 different dates in the period from June to September. From the set of obtained images a large number of differential interferograms was been formed corresponding to different deformation conditions of the barrage. Results showing the deformation pattern, clearly visible on the whole imaged portion of the structure, are presented. The comparison between measured displacements by D-InSAR and those from the barrage monitoring system in the selected points where traditional tools are installed are in good agreement.
Technique for Error Analysis of Near-Field Measurement, A
T. Pellerin,G. Seguin, November 1999
The objective of this study is to develop a new techniq ue to compensate the instrumentation errors of an antenna near-field test range. The methodology presented demonstrates that it is feasible to calculate the far-field radiation from near-field measurement with one deconvolution that will include all the errors introduced by the instrmentation. Measrements were performed on a standard gain horn as a reference and the analysis includes a theoretical comparison with a computer model of the standard gain horn, simulated using WIPL. Furthermore, four scenarios of error in the system flatness were analyzed, to verify that the technique is capable of correcting planarity errors.
MMW Instrumentation Systems for RCS Measurements & Applications
W.C. Parnell, November 1999
A variety of unique instrumentation radars have been developed by the RF & MMW Systems Division at Eglin Air Force Base in order to support both static and dynam ic Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements for Smart Weapons Applications. These systems include an airborne multispectral instrumentation suite that was used to collect target signatures in various terrain and environmental conditions (95 GHz Radar Mapping System - 95RMS), a look-down tower based radar designed to perform RCS measurements on ground vehicles (MMW Instrumentation, High Resolution Imaging Radar System MIHRIRS), two high power (35 & 95 GHz) systems capable of mapping/measuring both attenuation and backscatter properties of Obscurants and Chaff (MMW Radar Obscurant Characterization System MROCS: 1&2), and a Materials Measurement System (MMS) which provides complex free space, bistatic attenuation and reflectivity data on Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM), paints, nets and specialized coatings/materials. This paper will describe the instrumentation systems, calibration procedures and measurement techniques used for data collection as well as several applications which support modelina and simulation activities in the Smart Weapon community.
Digital Receiver Technology for High-Speed Near-Field Antenna Measurements
D. Fooshe,D. Slater, November 1999
High-speed receivers for near-field antenna and RCS measurements have traditionally been one-of-a-kind, expensive, difficult to interface and lacking in software support. Advances in digital signal processing, computer technology and software development now provide the means to economically solve these problems. NSI offers a high speed receiver subsystem, the Panther 6000 series, that allows multiplexed beam and frequency measurements at a rate of 80,000 independent amplitude and phase measurement points per second. The Panther 6000 receiver directly digitizes the 20 MHz IF test and reference input channels, and includes a high speed beam controller (HSBC) to sequence the measurement process. The HSBC receives an input trigger to initiate a measurement sequence of user-defined frequencies and beam or pol states. NSI also offers a multi-channel all-digital receiver subsystem, the Panther 6500, to interface directly with Digital Beam Forming (DBF) antennas. The Panther 6500 allows up to 16 channels of l and Q digital input (16 bits each) with 90 dB dynamic range per channel. The all-digital DBF receiver reduces the cost, complexity and performance limitations associated with conventional instrumentation in DBF antenna measurement applications. All Panther series receivers are fully integrated with the NSI97 antenna measurement software and operate with existing microwave sources, mixers and IF distribution equipment.
Compact Range for RCS & Antenna Measurements: System Description, A
T-T Chia,N. Balabukha, T-S. Yeo, W-J Koh, Y-B Gan, November 2000
The design of a compact range facility in the National University of Singapore is presented. The range is designed for antenna and RCS measurements from L­ band to Ka-band and for test objects up to about 2 metres in size. The reflector in the range is parabolic in shape with a focal length of 3.5 metres. The instrumentation is standard measurement equipment with some purpose-built controllers for the positioners and the scanner.
Motion Compensation in ISAR Imaging Using a Phase-Monitoring Subsystem
Moghaddar. A.,D. Fleisch, S. Gilmore, November 2000
Undesired antenna motion can significantly degrade SAR and ISAR image quality on an instrumentation radar operating in an outdoor or uncontrolled environment. Antenna vibration on the order of only a few hundredths of an inch at X-band frequencies can degrade performance to the point that one cannot reliably differentiate between the true and false peaks in the radar image. This paper describes a motion compensation technique that utilizes the measurements from an auxiliary antenna pointing at a stationary target. This "Phase Monitoring Subsystem" accurately records the linear antenna motion profile, which can then be used for compensation. Data collected at the US Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Fisher Island Test Facility on a calibration target demonstrate that this compensation technique can reduce image artifacts by more than 20 dB.
Architectural Framework for a Universal Microwave Measurement System, An
S.I. Tariq, November 2000
The complexity of modern antennas has resulted in the need to increase the productivity of ranges by orders of magnitude. This has been achieved by a combination of improved measurement techniques, faster instrumentation and by increased automation of the measurement process. This paper concentrates on automated measurement systems, and describes the requirements necessary to make such systems effective in production testing, and in research and development settings. The paper also describes one such implementation - the MI Technologies Model MI-3000 Acquisition and Analysis Workstation - that was designed specifically to cmnply with these requirements The paper discusses several important factors that must be considered in the design of automated measurement systems, including: (1) Enhancing range productivity; (2) Interfacing with instrumentation from a large number of suppliers; (3) Providing a uniform front-end for the measurement setup and operation that must be largely independent of the choice of the hardware configu rations or the type of range (near-field or far-field); (4) Making the test results available in a format that simplifies transition to external commercial and user­ program med applications; (5) Providing powerful scripting capability to facilitate end-user program ming and customization; (6) Using a development paradigm that allows incremental binary upgrades of new features and instruments. The paper also discusses computational hardware issues and software paradigms that help achieve the requirements.


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