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Far Field
Far-Field Bistatic RCS From Near-Field Measurements
R.A. Marr (Air Force Research Laboratory),R.V. McGahan (Air Force Research Laboratory), T.B. Hansen (MATCOM Corp.), T.J. Tanigawa (Air Force Research Laboratory), U.W.H. Lammers (MATCOM Corp.), November 2003
Bistatic radar cross sections of targets are computed from field measurements on a cylindrical scan surface placed in the near field of the target. The measurements are carried out in a radio anechoic chamber with an incident plane-wave field generated by a compact-range reflector. The accuracy of the computed target far field is significantly improved by applying asymptotic edge-correction techniques that compensate for the effect of truncation at the top and bottom edges of the scan cylinder. The measured field on the scan cylinder is a “total” near field that includes the incident field, the field of the support structure, and the scattered field of the target. The background subtraction method determines an approximation for the scattered near field on the scan cylinder from two measurements of total near fields. The far fields of metallic sphere and rod targets are computed from experimental near-field data and the results are verified with reference solutions.
Far-Field Bistatic RCS From Near-Field Measurements
R.A. Marr (Air Force Research Laboratory),R.V. McGahan (Air Force Research Laboratory), T.B. Hansen (MATCOM Corp.), T.J. Tanigawa (Air Force Research Laboratory), U.W.H. Lammers (MATCOM Corp.), November 2003
Bistatic radar cross sections of targets are computed from field measurements on a cylindrical scan surface placed in the near field of the target. The measurements are carried out in a radio anechoic chamber with an incident plane-wave field generated by a compact-range reflector. The accuracy of the computed target far field is significantly improved by applying asymptotic edge-correction techniques that compensate for the effect of truncation at the top and bottom edges of the scan cylinder. The measured field on the scan cylinder is a “total” near field that includes the incident field, the field of the support structure, and the scattered field of the target. The background subtraction method determines an approximation for the scattered near field on the scan cylinder from two measurements of total near fields. The far fields of metallic sphere and rod targets are computed from experimental near-field data and the results are verified with reference solutions.
Applications of Multilayer Resistive Strips (R-Card) in EM Measurements
T-H Lee (ElectroScience Laboratory),W.D. Burnside (ElectroScience Laboratory), November 2003
A single tapered resistive strip (R-Card) has been used in the past in several applications related to antenna designs and ground bounce reduction for far-field ranges. Several antenna designs use single tapered R-Card to significantly reduce the diffracted fields from the antenna to achieve low side lobe performance and also maintain stable phase center location across wide frequency bandwidth. Single layer R-Card fences have also been successfully designed and used to reduce the ground bounce stray signal in far field ranges. Recently, a multilayer tapered R-Card concept has been investigated and implemented in two different applications for interaction reduction due to performance requirements. One of the applications is to use multilayer R-Card fences to reduce the groundbounce effect between two antennas for GPS applications. The second application is to embed the multilayer R-Card with the Styrofoam target support column used in RCS measurements to reduce the interaction between the target-under-test and the metallic azimuth rotator underneath the Styrofoam column. In both applications, the multilayer R-Card concept, with different resistance distributions and proper spacing, has been designed and evaluated such that it behaves as an absorber to reduce the interference/interaction between two antennas or two scattering objects. The design and evaluation of this new multilayer R-Card concept will be presented in this paper.
Applications of Multilayer Resistive Strips (R-Card) in EM Measurements
T-H Lee (ElectroScience Laboratory),W.D. Burnside (ElectroScience Laboratory), November 2003
A single tapered resistive strip (R-Card) has been used in the past in several applications related to antenna designs and ground bounce reduction for far-field ranges. Several antenna designs use single tapered R-Card to significantly reduce the diffracted fields from the antenna to achieve low side lobe performance and also maintain stable phase center location across wide frequency bandwidth. Single layer R-Card fences have also been successfully designed and used to reduce the ground bounce stray signal in far field ranges. Recently, a multilayer tapered R-Card concept has been investigated and implemented in two different applications for interaction reduction due to performance requirements. One of the applications is to use multilayer R-Card fences to reduce the groundbounce effect between two antennas for GPS applications. The second application is to embed the multilayer R-Card with the Styrofoam target support column used in RCS measurements to reduce the interaction between the target-under-test and the metallic azimuth rotator underneath the Styrofoam column. In both applications, the multilayer R-Card concept, with different resistance distributions and proper spacing, has been designed and evaluated such that it behaves as an absorber to reduce the interference/interaction between two antennas or two scattering objects. The design and evaluation of this new multilayer R-Card concept will be presented in this paper.
Antenna Pattern Measurement of Microstrip Antennas Using Photonic Sensor and Spherical Scanning Techniques
M. Hirose (National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST),J. Komiyama (National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST), T. Ishizone (Toyo University), November 2003
We have developed the spherical near-field measurement system using a photonic sensor as the probe of the spherical scanning. Because the photonic sensor is a few gram of weight and a few mm in length, the measurement system can be compact and simple. The probe compensation is not needed because the photonic sensor can be considered as an ideal infinitesimal electric dipole antenna in the spherical near-field measurements as well as the planar near-field measurements as shown before. To demonstrate the validity of the system, we have measured the antenna patterns of a microstrip antenna on a finite printed board at 5.85 GHz. The measurements by the photonic sensor agreed with the one by the far-field method.
Interactions Between Probe Arrays and Antenna Under Test in Cylindrical and Spherical Near-Field Test Ranges: Numerical Assessment and Compensation Schemes
A. Ziyyat (Mohammed first University),D. Picard (Supélec), J-Ch Bolomey (Supélec), November 2003
While probe arrays are now recognized to allow rapid and accurate near-field measurements, the interaction with the Antenna Under Test (AUT) is still sometimes considered as a potential limitation, especially for electrically large directive antennas [1]. Based on numerical simulations, this paper reports the results of a thorough investigation of the interaction mechanism and analyses its impact on the far-field pattern accuracy. The most often, interaction effects can be maintained at an acceptable level, thanks to an appropriate design of the probe array element and structure. However, the efficiency of a posteriori compensation schemes has also been investigated. The Pattern Coherent Averaging Technique (PCAT) [2], which is well known for compensating plane wave deviations in the quiet zone of antenna far-field test ranges or interactions from single probe near-field facilities, also proved very efficient to reduce the interaction effects with a probe array.
Readily Made Comparison Among the Three Near-Field Measurement Geometries Using a Composite Near-Field Range
D.W. Hess (MI Technologies), November 2003
In this paper I demonstrate how our current technology now very readily permits a standard of accuracy and utility to be realized, that was formerly available only in research laboratories. This is accomplished with standardly available positioning equipment and standardly available software. Accurate alignment of the range is enabled by a tracking laser interferometer. This composite nearfield scanning antenna range has afforded us the opportunity to compare readily, far-field results from the classic planar, cylindrical and spherical coodinate systems. Comparison data are presented.
Planar near0Field Antenna Test Facility at KRISS
J. Kang,H, Kang, N. Choi, J. Kim, November 2004
The KRISS is in the process of completing the construction and installation of a planar near-field antenna test facility in the frequency range of 2 GHz to 50 GHz. This paper describes the planar near-field antenna test facility. Comparison of the far-field pattern, for verifying the antenna test facility, using a parabola antenna as artifact is also described. The patterns were measured by using the installed antenna test facility and a method developed by our group and showed good agreement.
Scan Plane Reduction Techniques for Planar Near-Field Antenna Measurements
D. Janse van Rensburg, November 2004
In this paper two planar near-field scan plane reduction techniques are considered and results are presented. It is shown how truncation based on field intensity contours, instead of simple geometric truncation can in some cases improve the efficiency of the truncation process. Both techniques are applied to measured data sets and it is shown how these methods can be used to reduce data acquisition times while also assessing the impact of the total acquisition surface reduction on the far-field radiation pattern integrity.
Ground Plane Simulation and Spherical Near-Field Scanning for Telematic Antenna Testing
D. Hess,B. Donald, November 2004
This paper presents the results of a laboratory simulation of an outdoor telematic antenna test site that employs spherical near-field scanning to determine the far fields of telematic antennas mounted on vehicles.
Spherical-Scanning Measurements: Propagating Errors through the Near-to Far-Field Transformation
R. Wittmann,M. Francis, November 2004
We estimate uncertainties in the test antenna transmitting function due to uncertainties in the near- field measurements and in the probe receiving function.
Ground Reflection Effects for Hemispherical near Field Scanning
E. Walton,C. Buxton, J. Snow, T.H. Lee, November 2004
The gain patterns of VHF/UHF antennas on ground structures and vehicles are influenced by the characteristics of the ground. The measurement of the performance of such antennas is more accurate with a test chamber that incorporates a realistic ground surface. This paper will discuss the near field to far field transformation process for the case where there are reflections from a ground surface outside the probing hemisphere. We will show that the ground reflection term in the transformation must be based on the characterization of the ground outside the probe region.
A Microstrip Leaky Wave Antenna and Its Properties
J. Radcliffe,G. Thiele, G. Zelinski, November 2004
It is well known that a microstrip transmission line can radiate if it is excited in its first higher order mode (with the fundamental or dominant mode suppressed). A new microstrip configuration is proposed that supports the first higher order mode while suppressing the fundamental mode. To quantify the leakage constants in the two cases for comparison purposes, several experimental means are considered to determine the source amplitude distribution from which the leakage constants may be deduced. First, an approximation to the source distribution is determined from the far field patterns themselves. Second, the source distribution is determined by carefully probing the near field. This paper uses these techniques to verify the performance of a new leaky wave antenna design.
Influence of Range Geometry and Feed Characteristics on Compact Range System Level Performance
M. Boumans, November 2004
The Geometrical Optics characteristics of single parabolic reflector compact range systems are presented in rules of thumb for amplitude taper, phase taper and cross polarization. This is illustrated on four different range configurations (two different focal lengths and two different offset angles). Also the influence of the feed system in regard to far field diagram and alignment is discussed for typical low and medium gain corrugated feeds. No diffraction effects are discussed in this paper. With the use of the rules of thumb, a fast and yet precise qualitative and quantitative analysis, optimization and trade off can be made for a compact range optimized for the available space as well as the application.
Effects of Positioning Errors on the Circular image-Based Near Field-to-Far Field RCS Transformation
S. Rice,I. LaHaie, November 2004
In this paper, we present an analysis of the impact of positioning errors on the performance of the GDAIS circular image-based near field-to-far field RCS trans­formation (CNFFFT). The analysis is part of our con­tinuing investigation into the application of near field­to-far field transformations to ground-based signature diagnostics. In particular, the analysis focuses on the errors associated with ground-to-ground, near-field, whole-body measurements where the radar moves on a nominally circular path around the target. Two types of positioning errors are considered: slowly-varying, long term drift and rapidly-varying, random perturbations about the nominal circular path. The analyses are con­ducted using simulated data from a target comprised of an array of generalized point scatterers which model both single and multiple interactions on the target. The performance of the CNFFFT was evaluated in terms of the angle sector cumulative RCS statistics. The analyses were performed as a function of frequency for varying amounts of position error, both with and without (ap­proximate) motion compensation. As expected, the re­sults show that the CNFFFT is significantly more sensi­tive to rapidly-varying position errors, but that accept­able performance can be achieved with motion compen­sation provided an accurate estimate of the errors is available.
Techniques for Measuring Adaptively Cohered Distributed Antenna Apertures
J. Kemp,C. Kerce, G. Hampton, J. Holder, November 2004
An internal research and development project at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) focused on cohering multiple apertures into a single distributed aperture. Cohered distributed aperture antenna patterns were collected on the GTRI far-field range for a 1.5 GHz bandwidth at X-band frequencies. Both 1-way and 2-way antenna patterns were measured, with the 1-way antenna pattern measurement requiring coherence on receive only and the 2-way antenna pattern measurement requiring coherence on transmit and receive. The resulting data were compared with the ideal angular resolution and power-aperture gain product improvements from a perfectly cohered distributed aperture, and the results are presented. As measurement techniques were developed for collecting 1-way and 2-way antenna pattern data, sources of potential errors in measurement collection and aperture coherence were identified, with potential methods of error mitigation outlined.
Implementation of Phase Retrieval Techniques for Phased Array Antenna Measurements
V. Markov,A. Filonenko, November 2004
For enhancing the performance of existing near field antenna test facilities it is quite reasonable to use both conventional (the amplitude and phase measurements) and the phaseless measurements techniques during electrically scanning phased array antennas (PAA) testing. This simple yet critical approach helps to improve the quality of PAA alignment and testing reducing measurement errors and saving costs. In this way many difficulties related to precise phase measurements are overcome. Both simulation and measurement results will be presented to demonstrate the utility of such approach to PAA alignment and determination of its parameters. Comparison will be made between the PAA patterns for electrically scanned beams calculated using traditional near field - far field (NF/FF) transformations, the phaseless methods and the results obtained applying both measurement techniques.
Varied Windows for Time Domain Antenna Near Field Measurements
Y. Zhu,F.C. Chang, G. Cheng, S. Huynh, November 2004
This paper presents a novel variable width time gating technique, which is applied to planar and cylindrical near-field data in impulse time-domain antenna near-field measurements. Due to the changing distance between the probe and the antenna under test (AUT) in planar and cylindrical scans, the conventional fixed time gating technique causes problems to remove multiple reflections from the desired AUT response. It further limits the application of time-domain measurement to planar and cylindrical scans. The new variable width time gating technique provides a flexible way to solve these problems. Test results for both planar and cylindrical near-field measurements are presented. The difference of far-field patterns between time-domain and frequency-domain near-field measurements is noticeable. We also show the effects on the far field patterns due to fixed and variable time gating windows. We further conclude that the time-domain technique also works for planar and cylindrical near-field measurements by using variable width time gating technique.
Varied Windows for Time Domain Antenna Near Field Measurements
Y. Zhu,F.C. Chang, G. Cheng, S. Huynh, November 2004
This paper presents a novel variable width time gating technique, which is applied to planar and cylindrical near-field data in impulse time-domain antenna near-field measurements. Due to the changing distance between the probe and the antenna under test (AUT) in planar and cylindrical scans, the conventional fixed time gating technique causes problems to remove multiple reflections from the desired AUT response. It further limits the application of time-domain measurement to planar and cylindrical scans. The new variable width time gating technique provides a flexible way to solve these problems. Test results for both planar and cylindrical near-field measurements are presented. The difference of far-field patterns between time-domain and frequency-domain near-field measurements is noticeable. We also show the effects on the far field patterns due to fixed and variable time gating windows. We further conclude that the time-domain technique also works for planar and cylindrical near-field measurements by using variable width time gating technique.
Thin-Wire Model Evaluation of the NUWC Arch for Measuring the Radiation Characteristics of Antennas Above Sea Water
J. Casey,M. Josypenko, November 2004
This paper presents an evaluation of the suitability of the 65-foot range for the measurement of the far-field radiation characteristics of antennas located above a sea water half space. The 65-foot range corresponds to the measurement distance of the Overwater Antenna Measurement Facility (Arch) at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Division, Newport, RI. Four antennas are investigated at the 200- to 400-MHz frequency range for antenna base heights ranging from 0 to 20 feet above sea water. The results presented are based on thin-wire model representations of the antennas using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC), version 4.1. The radiation parameters investigated are the directive gain, axial ratio, direction of maximum gain, and the location and depth of the first null above the horizon. For each antenna, plots of the differences of the computed radiation parameters at the 65-foot and far-field ranges are given as functions of frequency for various antenna base height above sea water. It is anticipated that the results presented in this paper may be helpful for determining at what frequencies and heights the NUWC Arch will provide accurate far-field measurements for a given type of antenna.


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