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Far Field
Planar Source Reconstruction and Far Field Calculation From Near Field Hemispherical Acquisition
F. Las-Heras,B. Galocha, November 1999
A reconstruction method that calculates bi-dimensional equivalent magnetic currents from the tangential electric field components over a hemispherical region is presented. The method is applied for diagnosis as well as for near field to far Field (NF-FF) transformation. The method is well suited for antenna radiation pattern measurement using a near-field spherical acquisition system in anechoic chamber.
Real-Time Far Field Antenna Measurement by Using A-MST Probe Arrays in the Focal Region of a Compact Range
Ph. Garreau,J.M. Lopez, K. Van't Klooster, P. Dumon, November 1999
This paper is focused on a recent installation of a probe array for direct far-field. measurement. Such an array has been installed in a well-established compact antenna test range at CNES called BCMA in Toulouse, France. It describes the interests of using such multi-sensor approach for characterizing directive antennas within far-field conditions without any mechanical movements. The paper shows how this facility has been dimensioned for operating over frequencies ranging from 7 GHz up to 15 GHz. Performances and general descriptions of both the probe array and its associated instrumentation will be given. A specific calibration procedure that has been studied and implemented is discussed and finally preliminary results are shown.
Real-Time Far Field Antenna Measurement by Using A-MST Probe Arrays in the Focal Region of a Compact Range
Ph. Garreau,J.M. Lopez, K. Van't Klooster, P. Dumon, November 1999
This paper is focused on a recent installation of a probe array for direct far-field. measurement. Such an array has been installed in a well-established compact antenna test range at CNES called BCMA in Toulouse, France. It describes the interests of using such multi-sensor approach for characterizing directive antennas within far-field conditions without any mechanical movements. The paper shows how this facility has been dimensioned for operating over frequencies ranging from 7 GHz up to 15 GHz. Performances and general descriptions of both the probe array and its associated instrumentation will be given. A specific calibration procedure that has been studied and implemented is discussed and finally preliminary results are shown.
Dual Mode RF/IR Beam Combiner
A. Torres, November 1999
The purpose for this advanced development program was to advance the flatness level on an RF/IR Beam combiner. The developed beam combiner minimized transmission losses for RF signals between 1 GHz and 40 GHz and maximized total transmission for RF signals between 8 GHz and 18 GHz. The combiner maximized IR reflectance for IR radiation (2µm to 13 tm). Two 12 inch units were delivered to NAWC-WPNS for evaluation. The combiners produced an average transmission losses in the range of 0.4 dB between 1 and 33 GHz and 0.8 dB between 33 GHz and 40 GHz. Reflectivity in the Infrared was measured at 87% with the use of a 3.39 µm laser source. The combiners were manufactured on PolyOxyMethyle (POM); they are highly crystalline structures, very flat (mold driven), with unique acetal resins structures. POMs are a variant of thermo­ plastics, are made by free radical polymerization initiated by a peroxide or azo catalyst, or by redox polymerization. Four basic polymerization processes may be used to produce good RF transmission acrylic resins. Using POM as the host material, a Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) using a low pass configuration, was Gold sputtered on the host material surface. The results produced a mirror like surface, highly visible and IR reflective, and very transmissive in the RF domain. These combiners are to be used for the anechoic chamber testing of dual mode missile seeker systems. The missile systems required in an anechoic chamber measurements, far field illumination from both IR signals and RF signals. The dual mode beam combiner allows spatially coherent signals to illuminate the missile seeker under test. Results of these development, seems to indicate that larger combiners can be fabricated on optically flat materials (e.g. fused silica) with flatness of 12 µm. This will allow the next generation seeker heads, operating with large focal plane arrays, to be stimulated in an anechoic chamber environment.
Iterative Information Retrieval Algorithm for Radar Applications
A. Zalevsky,A. Blank, November 1999
Phase retrieval is an important issue related to the reconstruction of SAR/ISAR images, when phase information is lost or unavailable. In this paper, an iterative algorithm is formulated which demonstrates the ability to perform phase retrieval with minimal set of constrains on the imaged object. This iterative algorithm requires only rough knowledge of the size of the imaged body and the amplitude of the received, far-field, radiation in the various frequencies and/or aspect angels (for I D or 2D image). By applying iterations between the two planes of the imaged body and the plane of the RADAR reflections (as a function of aspect angles and frequencies), a good reconstruction of the phase and the amplitude of the imaged body as well as the phase of the received radiation, are obtained. The algorithm can be used in the problem of imaging body in motion where motion compensation is difficult or in applications involving mm wave images, where phase information is lost in the turbulent atmosphere.
Experimental Time Domain Characterisation of Compact Ranges
J. Marti-Canales,A.G. Roederer, L.P. Ligthart, November 1999
Time domain (TD) antenna measurements have been successfully implemented in far field ranges [1,2]. The short acquisition times and the wide-band nature of the measurements make this regime a potential alternative to classical frequency domain measurements. Due to the measurement versatility offered by compact ranges, the implementation of TD measurements becomes especially attractive. This paper presents the modelling of the compact range performance in TD. In addition, a statistical evaluation criterion to assess the quiet zone quality is formulated. The results obtained show that this type of measurements can be successfully implemented in compact ranges.
Modelling of Time Domain Antenna Measurements in a Small Anechoic Chamber
J. Marti-Canales,L.P. Ligthart, November 1999
The growing need of ultra-wide band measurements has promoted the research on real time domain (TD) antenna measurements. Theory has been already established, but practices still under development until the measurement regime becomes fully operational. In the Delft University Chamber for Antenna Measurements (DUCAT) there have been already provided outstanding results in a TD far-field configuration. A TD far field model of the facility has been developed in order to provide a key to improve the range performance and accuracy. This paper presents the model and considerations for establishing TD error correction techniques.
Modelling of Time Domain Antenna Measurements in a Small Anechoic Chamber
J. Marti-Canales,L.P. Ligthart, November 1999
The growing need of ultra-wide band measurements has promoted the research on real time domain (TD) antenna measurements. Theory has been already established, but practices still under development until the measurement regime becomes fully operational. In the Delft University Chamber for Antenna Measurements (DUCAT) there have been already provided outstanding results in a TD far-field configuration. A TD far field model of the facility has been developed in order to provide a key to improve the range performance and accuracy. This paper presents the model and considerations for establishing TD error correction techniques.
Modelling of Compact Range Quiet-Zone Fields by PO and GTD
F. Jensen,J. Marti-Canales, L. Giauffret, November 1999
Modelling of the field in the quiet zone (QZ) of a compact range is a difficult task since the edges of the range reflectors are designed not to radiate into the quiet zone. As a consequence the edges of the range reflectors are complicated to model electromagnetically. In the present paper we compare modelling by physical optics (PO) with modelling by the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD). The investigation is carried out on a double reflector range with rectangular serrated reflectors. It is found that the range far field determined by PO is best explained by a ray model for reflectors having a double straight edge, which suggests to apply a GTD model on reflectors with straight edges but with attenuated diffraction contribution. Both PO and GTD results are shown and compared to measurements.
On Design Aspects of Compact Antenna Test Ranges for Operation Below 1 GHz
S.C. Van Someron Greve,L.G.T. van de Coevering, V.J. Vokurka, November 1999
Compact Antenna Test Ranges are eminently suitable for obtaining the far-field patterns of various types of antennas provided that the frequency is not too low. Typically, a low frequency limit of 1 or 2 GHz is realizable. There are, however a number of important applications between 500 and 1000 MHz for antenna diameters between 1 and 3 meters. The far field distance R = 2D2/l is just too large for an indoor far­ field range. It is generally accepted at present that a good solution for an indoor range for these kind of measurements is very difficult to realize. In this paper the low frequency performance of single and dual-reflector Compact Antenna Test Ranges will be investigated. It will be shown that with carefully designed serrations and feeds, excellent antenna measurements can be carried out at frequencies below 1.0 GHz for a large number of applications. For purposes of comparison, low frequency performance of a compact range with so called blended rolled edges will be presented as well.
On Design Aspects of Compact Antenna Test Ranges for Operation Below 1 GHz
S.C. Van Someron Greve,L.G.T. van de Coevering, V.J. Vokurka, November 1999
Compact Antenna Test Ranges are eminently suitable for obtaining the far-field patterns of various types of antennas provided that the frequency is not too low. Typically, a low frequency limit of 1 or 2 GHz is realizable. There are, however a number of important applications between 500 and 1000 MHz for antenna diameters between 1 and 3 meters. The far field distance R = 2D2/l is just too large for an indoor far­ field range. It is generally accepted at present that a good solution for an indoor range for these kind of measurements is very difficult to realize. In this paper the low frequency performance of single and dual-reflector Compact Antenna Test Ranges will be investigated. It will be shown that with carefully designed serrations and feeds, excellent antenna measurements can be carried out at frequencies below 1.0 GHz for a large number of applications. For purposes of comparison, low frequency performance of a compact range with so called blended rolled edges will be presented as well.
Technique for Error Analysis of Near-Field Measurement, A
T. Pellerin,G. Seguin, November 1999
The objective of this study is to develop a new techniq ue to compensate the instrumentation errors of an antenna near-field test range. The methodology presented demonstrates that it is feasible to calculate the far-field radiation from near-field measurement with one deconvolution that will include all the errors introduced by the instrmentation. Measrements were performed on a standard gain horn as a reference and the analysis includes a theoretical comparison with a computer model of the standard gain horn, simulated using WIPL. Furthermore, four scenarios of error in the system flatness were analyzed, to verify that the technique is capable of correcting planarity errors.
Near Field Range Error at Off-Probe-Calibration Frequencies
R.E. Wilson,W.G. Scott, November 1999
Proper operation of a planar NFR (near field range) includes probe correction as part of the processing of the measured data to result in accurate far field angle patterns, particularly for low cross polarized patterns. The far field transform of the near field data produces the angular spectrum which is the product of the plane wave transmission coefficient pattern of the AUT (antenna under test) with the plane wave receiving coefficient pattern of the probe. Probe correction consists of dividing the angular spectrum by the complex probe angle pattern resulting in the pure far field pattern of the AUT [1]. For best accuracy of co and cross polarized AUT patterns one needs to use accurately measured probe complex co and cross polarized patterns in probe correction for each NFR test frequency. The most accurate probe measurements are usually obtained from specialized test laboratories. However, if the number of frequencies is large, this may create problems due to cost or schedule. Because of this it is typical to procure probe calibration at only a few frequencies spanning the test band for each AUT even though pattern measurements are needed at several additional frequencies falling between the calibration frequencies. A typical strategy at any given test frequency is to perform probe correction using the nearest-neighbor-frequency probe calibration data. This strategy produces some unknown error in the processed probe corrected far field patterns of the AUT at each non-calibrated frequency. Inthis paper we will show a method for estimating the non-calibrated frequency probe correction error for co and cross polarized patterns with examples.
Algorithm to Reduce Bias Errors in Planar Near-Field Measurements Data, An
P.R. Rousseau, November 1999
A bias error in planar near-field measurement data comes from receiver crosstalk or leakage effects [1, 2, 3]. The bias error is a complex constant added to every near-field data sample. After transformation from the near-field to the far-field, the bias error becomes an easily identifiable spike located at the center of k-space. If one is measuring a horn, then the bias error produces a small bump or spike at the center of the far-zone pattern (i.e. at the center of k-space). If one is measuring a high­gain antenna with the antenna beam pointed away from the center of k-space, then the bias error causes an erroneous sidelobe spike at the center of k-space. The bias constant is difficult to estimate be­ cause it may be more than 60 dB below the peak near-field level. Nevertheless, if the effect of the bias error can be seen in the far­ zone pattern of the test antenna, then it can be estimated and removed from the measured data. An algorithm is presented that is used to estimate the bias constant directly from the near-field data, then the bias constant is simply subtracted from the data. Examples using measured data are used to illustrate how the algorithm works and to show its effectiveness.
Diagnostic Techniques for Verification of Planar Nearfield Range Used for Characterization of the ERIEYE AEW Phased Array Antennas
H. Eriksson, November 1999
The NIST 18 term error budget is used to estimate the magnitude of each individual source of error and then combine them to the total uncertainty for the planar nearlield range designed for antenna characterization of the ERIEYE Airborne Early Warning System. The ERIEYE AEW System consists of two large phased array antennas, one at each side of the Dorsal Unit which is located on the top of the airplane fuselage. T/R-modules are connected to the antenna waveguides to control the beamsteering and the very low sidelobe level. The sidelobe level is supervised by a calibration during operation, using a table of calibration data. The table of calibration data is produced by iterative computer runs of programs performing the two transformations Near-field-to-Far-field and Far-field-to-Waveguide Excitation - the characterization. Characterization to very low sidelobe level in the calculated farfield is possible when using for instance planar nearfield technique to measure an active antenna. The errors at the planar nearfield range are misleadingly compensated for by the characterization. Therefore a minimization together with a continuous control of the noise level is necessary.
Application of Non-Rectilinear Co-ordinate Systems in the Characterisation of Mis-aligned Space Antennas, The
S. Gregson,J. McCormick, November 1999
Traditional measurement methods assume that very accurate antenna to range alignment of the antenna under test (AUT) is convenient or possible. It has recently been shown that the use of non-rectilinear co-ordinate systems are of particular use for the purpose of correcting antenna to range misalignment. Additionally, this misalignment correction can be used to construct an extended composite measurement plane from a series of mis-aligned scans that themselves can be considered as constituting a polyhedral measurement surface. This paper describes the additional processing that is required to yield corrected near and far field data from an acquisition of a mis-aligned AUT. This technique is then illustrated with example results. The agreement of the corrected results is determined via the application of image classification techniques which correlate antenna patterns in a reduced vector pattern space in terms of their overall global features.
Displacement of Collimator Beam for Extended Target RCS Measurements
M. Emire,D. Hilliard, D. Mensa, K. Vaccaro, W. Yates, November 1999
Compact range collimating reflectors provide far-field conditions for radar signature measurements. Traditionally, the quiet zone is presented uniformly about the collimator boresight and depends upon both the size of the reflector and the beamwidth of the illuminating antenna, with a maximum determined by the reflector dimensions. Targets are placed in the center of the quiet zone and rotated about the center of gravity (cg) during measurement. Limitations on target size are defined by the quiet zone bounds. For large targets with a non-central cg location, a portion of the target may extend beyond the quiet zone boundary. A technique for synthesizing a larger quiet zone uses displacement of the collimator beam by means of feed­ point offset to allow far-field measurement of an asymmetrically-mounted extended target. Simultaneous measurements for each offset are then combined to produce the complete measurement. This technique was implemented for measurements of an ARIES ballistic missile target.
Performance Requirements for a Microwave Cable to be Used in a Near-Field Antenna Range
H.W. Banning, November 1999
A near-field antenna range will often utilize a flexible microwave cable assembly as a means to transport the sampled signal from the moving sample antenna to a receiver as part of the measurement system. The performance of that cable directly impacts the quality of the final far-field pattern. It has been observed that the cable had been exhibiting a flex life much shorter than anticipated. Analysis of a failed cable revealed that the problem was the result of non-uniformities in the extruded jacket, which produced sites of high stress. These sites ultimately caused the cable conductors to work harden and fracture. A cable which utiized a woven expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) fiber as an outer jacket was substituted, resulting in a threefold improvement in flex life to date, with the cable still in operation at this writing.
Real-Time Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Range for Wireless Applications
P.O. Iverson,E. Pasalic, G. Engblom, K. Englund, O. Edvardsson, P. Garreau, November 1999
SATIMO has recently installed a spherical near-field antenna measurement system for ALLGON MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS, the market leader in the field of antennas for mobile telephones. This spherical near-field system, as shown in Figure 1, allows for real-time measurements of antennas and will among other be used for the measurements of the radiation characteristics of mobile telephones and satellite terminals in the presence of the human operator. The system consists of a circular of 4m diameter containing 64 dual polarized measurement which are electronically scanned giving a real-time near-field pattern cut over 310° in elevation. A full sphere measurement including near-field to far-field transformation is available in seconds with a single +/- 90° azimuth rotation. The paper will present the measurement system and the results of the final acceptance tests. The acceptance tests are based on both range inter­ comparisons and also by measurement of key terms in the overall error budget.
A-MST Linear Probe Array Systems for Rapid Testing of Anechoic Chambers, Antennas, and Radomes
B. Cown,E. Beaumont, J. Estrada, M. Hudgens, P. Iversen, Ph. Garreau, November 1999
The development and implementation of novel measurement systems for rapid electromagnetic (EM) field testing by using linear arrays of modulated scattering elements is presented and discussed. The measurement systems employ the Advanced Modulated Scattering Technique (A-MST) to accomplish rapid sampling of the incident electromagnetic field along the length of the linear probe array at rates that are faster than conventional mechanical scanning of a single probe by a factor of 10 to 1000 or more. The A-MST probe array may be located in the nea r-field (NF) or far-field (FF) of the EM sources.


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