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Microwave Material Characterization using Epsilon Near Zero (ENZ) Tunnel Structures
D.V.B. Murthy, C.J.Reddy, November 2020
Over the years many methods have been developed and used for measuring permittivity and permeability of materials. The most widely used methods are: 1) free-space techniques; 2) cavity perturbation techniques; and 3) transmission line of waveguide methods. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. The free-space methods are employed when the material is available in a big sheet form. These measurements are less accurate because of unwanted reflections from surrounding objects, difficulty in launching a plane wave in a limited space, and unwanted diffraction from the edges of the sample. The resonant cavity measurement or cavity perturbation techniques are more accurate. Recently "epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials have received much attention for several interesting phenomena like super-coupling, transparency and cloaking devices and pattern reshaping at microwave and optical frequencies. The rapid growth and excitement of ENZ materials was due to their ability to achieve very long wavelength in zero permittivity material, allowing propagation in a static-like manner. This paper presents the evaluation of complex dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of materials using planar ENZ tunnel structure with substrate integrated waveguide technology. The changes in resonance frequency and quality factor are related to the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability properties of the sample through Cavity Perturbation Technique. ENZ tunnel structure has very high sensitivity, which yields more accurate results when compared to other techniques, such as perturbation of conventional cavities. Design, optimization, and simulation of the ENZ tunnel structure at microwave frequencies is presented. Simulations are performed on various dielectric and magnetic samples using the cavity perturbation technique of the ENZ tunnel structure and validated with measured data.
Amplitude and Phase Uncertainty Analysis due to Cable Flexing in Robot-Based Measurement Systems
Roland Moch,Thomas Gemmer,Dirk Heberling, November 2020
The 18-term NIST error model is a common tool for analyzing potential sources of error in antenna measurements. One of the error terms to be considered describes the phase errors occurring in a measurement system. However, this quantity plays a rather negligible role for conventional ranges, such as roll-over-azimuth positioning systems. In particular, the contribution caused by flexing cables is normally insignificant. This results from the fixed installation of the cables or the decoupling of the movement at important points using rotary joints. Current developments in the field of antenna measurement technology focus, among other things, on performing measurements using industrial robot arms. These are characterized by their high flexibility regarding the various measurement sequences, such as planar, cylindrical or spherical measurements. However, it is to be expected that the high freedom of positioning possibilities will introduce additional phase uncertainties, since the RF cables in the cable carrier chain of the robot arm itself are often not decoupled. Instead, a single cable is used for each signal path, which follows the movements of the robot. The robot-based measurement system at the Institute of High Frequency Technology at RWTH Aachen University has been designed for frequencies above 60 GHz, where phase stability is a challenging task. Depending on the setup, it may even be required to pass Intermediate Frequency (IF) signals on the same cable as the Local Oscillator (LO) signals. This results in different test cases for the phase deviations depending on the frequency range of the IF (279 MHz) and LO (typically 10 GHz to 18 GHz) signals. Additional factors such as the measurement path of the robot or the position of the linear axis must also be taken into account. Therefore, a thorough analysis of the phase uncertainties caused due to flexing cables is of outstanding importance for robot-based measurement systems.
Adaptive Sampling for Compressed Spherical Near-Field Measurements
Cosme Culotta-L›pez,Dirk Heberling, November 2020
One of the main disadvantages of Spherical Near-Field (SNF) measurements is their acquisition time. This is due to the need of sampling a whole sphere around the Antenna Under Test (AUT) to perform the Near-Field-to-Far-Field Transformation (NFFFT). A step of the NFFFT is to decompose the measured signal in each one of the spherical waves it consists of, thus retrieving the Spherical Mode Coefficients (SMCs) associated to the AUT. Under typical measurement conditions, the SMCs of most physical AUTs prove sparse, i.e., most of their terms are zero or neglectable. Using this assumption, the system of linear equations with the SMCs as variables can be solved with fewer equations, that is, fewer measurement samples. This is done by applying an l1-minimization solver, following classical methodology from the field of compressed sensing. However, the location of the measurement points that generate non-redundant equations is not trivial. In typical compressed-sensing applications, a random sampling matrix is taken. Since a random matrix is inefficient for the acquisition with mechanical roll-over-azimuth positioner systems, a recent approach is to take an equidistant distribution of points on elevation and to calculate their corresponding pair on azimuth that delivers the minimum coherence of the sampling matrix. However, the number of sampling points M required for a successful reconstruction depends on the sparsity level of the SMCs of the unknown AUT, making its choice critical and based on a pessimistic approach. A method for the adaptive choice of M is suggested. After the acquisition of a starting set of M_0 measurement points, chosen using phase transition diagrams, the SMCs are estimated online with few iterations of an l1-minimization algorithm. Afterwards, further points are acquired, and the SMCs are estimated again using them. Following the evolution and the decrease of the variation between estimates, it is possible to truncate the measurement at a point where a successful reconstruction is guaranteed. The method for the construction of a minimum-coherent sampling matrix for adaptive acquisition and the truncation criteria for a specific accuracy are discussed with a focus onimplementation, and supported with numerical experiments, performed with measurementdata.
Sensitivity analysis of Fast Non-Redundant NF Sampling Methodologies with Probe Positioning errors
Maria Saporetti,Lars Foged,Francesco Saccardi,Francesco D'Agostino,Claudio Gennarelli,Rocco Guerriero,Flaminio Ferrara,Ruben Tena Sanchez,Damiano Trenta, November 2020
The planar wide-mesh scanning (PWMS) methodology is based on Non-redundant scanning schemes allowing faster measurements than classical Nyquist-compliant acquisitions based on denser, regular, equally spaced Near Field (NF) sampling. The methodology has no accuracy loss and has been validated at different bands and with different antennas [1]. The effectiveness of the PWMS technique has always been proven in error-free (or quasi-error-free) scenarios, assuming that possible errors introduced by the technique itself are independent of the typical source of measurement uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate for the first time the sensibility of the method wrt one of this error source included in the 18-terms lists [2], considered by the measurement community as an exhaustive list of the NF errors: X and Y probe positioning errors. Such errors are unknown and random and are associated to the mechanical vibrations and/or backlash of the system. The investigation has been done considering actual measurements of a multi-beam reflector antenna with approximately 35 dBi gain (MVG SR40 fed by two MVG SH5000 dual ridge horn). The AUT has been measured in planar geometry emulated by a 6-axis Staubli robot. The test was performed at 22-33 GHz. A set of measurements has been performed introducing a uniformly distributed random error in the range [0-1] mm, corresponding to ?/10 at 30 GHz. Errors are considered unknown. In the paper it will be shown that both in the classical and PWMS approaches the main beam is basically not affected by the introduced errors. The sidelobes are instead affected by such errors especially in the pattern cut where the beam is tilted. Such error levels obtained with the classical approach are comparable to those obtained with the PWMS approach, meaning that the latter is stable and against such type of perturbations.
NF-FF TRANSFORMATION WITH UNIFORM PLANAR SPIRAL SCANNING FOR VOLUMETRIC ANTENNAS
Francesco D'Agostino,Flaminio Ferrara,Claudio Gennarelli,Rocco Guerriero,Massimo Migliozzi,Giovanni Riccio, November 2020
NF-FF transformations have proven to be a convenient tool to accurately reconstruct the antenna pattern from NF measurements. In this framework, a very hot issue is the reduction of the time required to perform the measurements. To obtain a remarkable reduction of this time, nonredundant (NR) NF-FF transformations with planar spiral scannings have been developed in [1], by applying the NR representations of electromagnetic fields [2]. Optimal sampling interpolation (OSI) formulas have been used to efficiently reconstruct the massive NF data for the classical plane-rectangular (PR) NF-FF transformation from the NR spiral samples. The drastic measurement time-saving is due to the reduced number of needed NF samples acquired on fly, by adopting continuous and synchronized motions of the linear positioner of the probe and of the turntable of the AUT. However, such a time-saving is obtained at the expense of a nonuniform step of the spiral. Therefore, the linear positioner velocity is not constant, but must vary according to a not trivial law to trace the spiral, and this implies a complex control of the linear positioner. This work aims to develop an effective NF-FF transformation with planar spiral scanning for volumetric AUTs, wherein the spiral step is uniform and, hence, the linear positioner velocity becomes constant. To this end, the AUT is considered as enclosed in a sphere, the spiral is chosen in such a way that its step coincides with the sampling spacing needed to interpolate along a radial line according to the spatial band-limitation properties, and the NR representation along such a spiral is determined. Then, an OSI algorithm is developed to recover the NF data needed by the PR NF-FF transformation from the spiral samples. Numerical simulations assessing the accuracy of the developed NF-FF transformation will be shown.
Experimental Investigation of Different Floor Materials in Automotive Near Field Antenna Testing
Francesco Saccardi,Lars Foged,Francesca Mioc,John Estrada,Per Iversen,Michael Edgerton,Janalee Graham,Alessandro Scannavini, November 2020
Spherical near-field systems installed in shielded anechoic chambers are typically involved in modern automotive antenna measurements [1-3]. Such systems are often truncated at or close to the horizon to host the vehicle under test while limiting the size/cost of the chamber. The vehicle is usually placed on a metallic floor [4] or on a floor covered by absorbers [5]. The latter solution is intended to emulate a free space environment and is a key factor to perform accurate measurements down to 70 MHz. The availability of the free-space response also enables easy emulation of the car's behaviour over realistic grounds [6-7] while such emulations are more complex when a conductive ground is considered [8]. Conductive ground measurements also suffer from a strong interaction between the conductive floor and the measurement system and only in a limited number of situations such types of floor are a good approximation of realistic grounds (such as asphalts). However, the main advantage of conductive floor systems is the ease of accommodation of the vehicle under test which is simply parked in the center of the system. In absorber-based systems, instead, more time is generally needed to remove/place the absorber around the vehicle. Moreover, at low frequencies (70-400 MHz), large and bulky absorbers are normally used to ensure good reflectivity levels and the vehicle needs to be raised to avoid shadowing effect of absorbers. In this paper we investigate whether the measurement setup phase in absorber-based systems can be simplified by using smaller absorbers at low frequencies and/or not using them at all but considering conductive floors. The loss of accuracy in such scenarios will be studied considering a scaled vehicle and an implemented scaled automotive system where it is possible to access the full-spherical, real free-space scenario which is used as reference. The analysis is carried out considering (scaled) frequencies relevant to automotive applications in the 84-1500 MHz range. Two types of scaled absorbers, of different size and reflectivity, are considered to emulate the behaviour of the realistic full-scale 48-inch and 18-inch height absorbers. Measurements over metallic floor are included also in the analysis.
Near Field Measurements with Radically reduced Sampling requirement through Numerically defined expansion Functions
Maria Saporetti,Lars Foged,Francesco Saccardi,Giuseppe Vecchi,Marco Righero,Giorgio Giordanengo,Damiano Trenta, November 2020
We present an antenna measurement methodology requiring a radically lower number of field samples than the standard Nyquist-based theory maintaining a comparable accuracy. simulations and partial knowledge of the geometry of the Antenna Under Test are combined to build a set of numerically defined expansion functions: the method uses basic knowledge of the antenna and the assumption that scattering from large surfaces can be predicted accurately by numerical tools; areas of the antenna such as feeding structures are treated as unknown and represented by equivalent electric and magnetic currents on a conformal surface. In this way, the complexity, and thus the number of unknowns, is dramatically reduced wrt the full problem for most antennas. The basis functions representing the full antenna are used to interpolate a radically reduced set of measured samples to a fine regular grid of Near Field (NF) samples in standard geometries. Regular NF to Far Field (FF) transformation techniques are then employed to determine the FF. The sampling reduction is evaluated compared to a regular sampling on standard Nyquist-complaint grids. The method can be employed in standard sampling ranges. In [1] asymptotic simulation tools were used to build the numerical basis. In this paper, methods based on Surface Integral Equations (SIEs) are used to compute currents and fields. The currents induced on the antenna structure by each elementary source are computed and used to evaluate the radiated field. Both electric and magnetic elementary sources are placed around the antenna and the SIE problems use a fast algorithm to evaluate matrix-vector products. The methodology is validated with planar and spherical acquisitions on a reflector antenna (MVG SR40) fed by a dual ridge horn SH4000 and in a multi-feed configurations (using several SH5000) at 18 and 30 GHz. Patterns obtained with down-sampled fast approach are compared to standard measurements. Down-sampling factors up to 8 are achieved maintaining very high correlation levels with standard techniques.
Automotive OTA Measurement Techniques and Challenges
Patrick Pelland,Daniel Janse van Rensburg,Mihai Berbeci, November 2020
Characterizing the performance of automobile-mounted antennas has been an ongoing and evolving challenge for the antenna measurement community. Today, the automotive test environment poses unique challenges with its diversity and complexity of wireless on-board systems and the large electrical size of the test article. The evolution of cellular technologies over the past decade means that the basic mobile handset has now become a smartphone with significantly increased capability; this exact same trend has been mirrored by the automotive industry where we have witnessed the basic car radio and cassette player evolve into a multi-function infotainment unit. Modern vehicles include a multitude of wireless technologies, including cellular (2G, 3G, LTE), Bluetooth, WiFi, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), collision avoidance radar, and more. Testing the complete vehicle is currently the only method available that certifies the correct mode of operation for each technology (including co-existence and interference) and also assures the manufacturer that the various sub-systems are performing as expected in the presence of all other sub-systems and the vehicle itself. While modern vehicles now function like large mobile devices, the conventional Over-the-Air (OTA) measurement systems and techniques available for small form factor devices (e.g. mobile phones) are ill-suited to testing such large devices. In this paper, we will highlight some of the unique challenges encountered in the automotive test environment. We will start by looking into existing methods of measuring radiation patterns of automobile-mounted antennas and providing a qualitative assessment of the various techniques with a focus on near-field solutions. A brief description of OTA testing will follow, coupled with an in-depth look into how techniques that are proven for handset type OTA measurements are being translated to automotive measurements. This section will provide a breakdown of key OTA test metrics, the measurement hardware typically required and key assumptions about the device under test. Finally, some performance tradeoffs and challenges associated with designing a multi-purpose antenna/OTA measurement system will be described.
Using High-Accuracy Swing Arm Gantry Positioners in Spherical Near-Field Automotive Measurement Systems
Tim Schwartz,Vivek Sanandiya,Eric Kim, November 2020
Spherical Near-Field (SNF) systems using a swing arm gantry configuration have been the go to solution for automotive measurement systems. Recent advances in the automotive industry have warranted a need for SNF systems with high mechanical positioning accuracy supporting measurements up to 40 GHz and beyond. This paper presents the design and implementation of a new swing arm gantry positioner having an 8-meter radius and a radial axis to support high frequency SNF measurements. We first define the relation of the gantry axis to the global coordinate system and discuss primary sources of errors. Next, a robust mechanical design is presented including design considerations and implementation. We then present errors measured using a tracking laser interferometer for probe position through the range of gantry axis travel. Static corrections for probe positioning errors are implemented in the control system using the radial axis. The resultant residual error for the swing arm gantry is then shown to have the accuracy required for high frequency SNF measurements.
Element Failure Detection of Antenna Array using Far-field Measurement with Shallow Neural Network
Michitaka Ameya, November 2020
In the 5G communication, antenna array has been widely used for high-speed wireless communication. For reliable antenna array system, the failure diagnosis of antenna array is one of the most important problems that has been studied for a long time. The back-projection method using near-field measurements is a one of the failure diagnosis technique based on the plane-wave expansion. However, when antenna elements are densely placed, it is difficult to estimate the excitation coefficients of the antenna elements with the back-projection method, because the obtained images from the conventional back-projection method has only a resolution of one wavelength. In addition, since there is usually a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time. Therefore, it is difficult to satisfy the both requirements of accuracy and short measurement time. We have reported the element failure detection algorithm using a 2-layer shallow neural network with planar near-field measurement last year. In this report, the element failure detection of antenna array is performed with a minimum number of measurement points while maintaining enough accuracy by learning the relationship between excitation coefficients of antenna array and the electric far-field distribution by a shallow neural network. In the case of 64-elements short dipole antenna arrays, the estimation error of excitation coefficients of antenna array less than 1% are achieved by our trained neural network with a minimum number of far-field measurements with 50 dB SNR. The detailed algorithm and simulation results will be reported in the full-paper and the presentation.
2D RCS Prediction from Multistatic Near-Field Measurements on a Plane by Single-Cut Near-Field Far-Field Transformation and Plane-Wave Synthesis
Shuntaro Omi, Michitaka Ameya, Masanobu Hirose, Satoru Kurokawa, October 2019
A near-field far-field transformation (NFFFT) technique with a plane-wave synthesis is presented for predicting two-dimensional (2D) radar cross sections (RCS) from multistatic near-field (NF) measurements. The NFFFT predicts the FF of the OUT illuminated by each single source, then the plane-wave synthesis predicts the FF of the OUT each illuminated by each plane-wave by synthesizing the FFs given in the NFFFT step. The both steps are performed in the similar computational procedure based on a single-cut NFFFT technique that has been proposed previously. The method is performed at low cost computation because the NF and source positions are required only on a single cut plane. The formulation and validation of the method is presented.
A Straightforward Dynamic Range Error Analysis
Marion Baggett, Brett T Walkenhorst, October 2019
The significant measurement standards in the antenna measurement community all present suggested error analysis strategies and recommendations. However, many of the factors in these analyses are static in nature in that they do not vary with antenna pattern signal level or they deal with specific points in the pattern, such as realized gain, side lobe magnitude error or a derived metric such as on-axis cross polarization. In addition, many of the constituent factors of the error methods are the result of analyses or special purpose data collections that may not be available for periodic measurement. The objective of this paper is to use only a few significant factors to analyze the error bounds in both magnitude and phase for a given antenna pattern, for all levels of the pattern. Most of the standards metrics are errors of amplitude. However, interest is increasing in determining phase errors and, hence, this methodology includes phase error analysis for all factors.
Robust Automotive Satellite Navigation Achieved with Distributed Groups of Sub-arrays
Syed N Hasnain, Ralf Stephan, Marius Brachvogel, Michael Meurer, Matthias A Hein,, October 2019
Ambiguous direction-of-arrival estimation is a key problem for uniformly distributed antenna arrays with inter-element spacing exceeding half of the carrier wavelength. The primary reason behind such ambiguity are the grating lobes generated in the radiation patterns due to insufficient spatial sampling. An L-shaped orthogonal arrangement of radiating elements in distributed sub-arrays is an approach that removes grating lobes and consequent ambiguity to a great extent. The reduction of footprint area by distributing the elements across a car also makes it a suitable approach for conformal integration into automotive exterior parts. In order to realize the feasibility of its application in passenger cars, we investigate and evaluate this concept through measurements and digital array signal processing. This paper presents a comparison of L-shaped antenna element arrangements for different spacings between two sub-arrays, as well as a verification of the concept when mounted on a passenger car. For each scenario, the radiation patterns are analyzed and the robustness of the system against a static interferer is verified.
A Compact Reconfigurable Millimeter-Wave Antenna Measurement System Based Upon an Industrial Robot
Jason Jerauld, Felix Yuen, Nathan Landy, Tom Driscoll, October 2019
Echodyne has recently completed and qualified a new millimeter-wave antenna measurement system for characterization of beam-steering antennas such as our Metamaterial Electronic Steering Arrays (MESAs). Unlike most far-field systems that employ a standard Phi/Theta or Az/El positioner, we use a six-axis industrial robot that can define an arbitrary AUT coordinate system and center of rotation. In different operational modes, the robot is used as an angular AUT positioner (e.g., Az/El) or configured for linear scan areas. This flexible positioning system allows us to characterize the range illumination and quiet zone reflections without modification to the measurement system. With minor modifications, the system could also be used in a planar-near field configuration. Range alignment can be easily performed by redefining the coordinate system of the AUT movement in software. The approximate 5.2-meter range length is within the radiating near-field of many arrays of interest, so we employ spherical near-field (SNF) correction when necessary, using internally-developed code. Specialty tilted absorber was installed in the chamber to improve quiet zone performance, over standard absorber treatment for similar aspect ratio ranges. Narrower ranges often have specular reflections that exceed 60° and benefit from the specialty tilted absorber designed to reduce the angle of incidence. We present an overview of the measurement system and some initial measurement data, along with lessons learned during design and integration. I. MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OVERIVEW A 7.3m x 3.7m x 3.7m footprint was allocated for the new R&D millimeter-wave antenna measurement chamber. After accounting for structural considerations, the final chamber interior dimensions are 7.1m(L) x 3.45m(W) x 3.35m(H) and the final range length (separation between range antenna and quiet zone center) is about 5.2 m. Table 1 lists the high-level goals of the measurement system are listed in. Table 1. Echodyne R&D chamber goals. Parameter Goal Frequency range 12-40 GHz, with provisions up to 80 GHz Polarization Dual-linear switched or simultaneous AUT positioner Azimuth-over-Elevation and linear scanning Quiet zone size 0.4m(L) x 0.4m(W) x 0.4m(H) Side lobe uncertainty +/-1 dB for-20 dB sidelobe Figure 1 shows the dimensions of the rectangular chamber, which is lined with the special absorber design described in Section II. Figure 2 shows an overview of the measurement system. The RF subsystem consists of a 4-port vector network analyzer (VNA), a Gigatronics GT-1050A power amplifier, a directional coupler (placed after the amplifier) to provide the VNA reference signal and a MVG QR18000 dual-polarized closed boundary quad-ridged horn [1] as the range antenna. This setup provides continuous frequency coverage from 12 to 40 GHz. External frequency converter modules can be used to extend the range further into millimeter wave. Horizontal and vertical polarization are acquired simultaneously by measuring three receiver channels (B, C & R1) and calculating the ratios B/R1 and C/R1 which remove the effects of amplifier drift (such as temperature coefficient). The range antenna is mounted to a rotary stage to allow direct measurement of Ludwig-III polarization if desired (versus polarization synthesis in post-processing). The AUT positioner described in Section III is a six-axis industrial robot that provides both angular azimuth-over-elevation and linear scanning with high-accuracy. Linear scanning allows planar near-field measurements in addition to the quiet zone evaluation shown in Section IV. The 5.2 m range length is within the radiating near-field of many arrays of interest, especially at higher frequencies. For example, even a relatively small (140 mm) AUT would have a 22.5° phase taper across at 40 GHz. We use the spherical near-field measurement correction [2] described in Section V to obtain true far-field patterns in the Az/El coordinates described by the robot motion. Figure 1. Rectangular chamber dimensions (in inches).
Personal Near-field System
Dan Slater, October 2019
In 1987 the author built the world's first Personal Near-field antenna measurement System (PNS). This led to the formation of Nearfield Systems Inc. (NSI) a company that became a major manufacturer of commercial near-field antenna measurement systems. After leaving NSI in 2015 several new personal antenna measurement tools were built including a modern updated PNS. The new PNS consists of a portable XY scanner, a hand held microwave analyzer and a laptop computer running custom software. The PNS was then further generalized into a modular electromagnetic field imaging tool called "Radio Camera". The Radio Camera measures electromagnetic fields as a n-dimensional function of swept independent parameters. The multidimensional data sets are processed with geometric and spectral transformations and then visualized. This paper provides an overview of the new PNS and Radio Camera, discusses operational considerations, and compares it with the technology of the original 1987 PNS. Today it is practical for companies, schools and individuals to build low-cost personal antenna measurement systems that are fully capable of meeting modern industry measurement standards. These systems can be further enhanced to explore and visualize electromagnetic fields in new and interesting ways.
Combination of Spherical and Planar Scanning for Phaseless Near-Field Antenna Measurements
Fernando Rodríguez Varela, Galocha Iraguen, Manuel Sierra Castañer, Javier Fernández Alvárez, Michael Mattes, Olav Breinbjerg, October 2019
The two scans phaseless technique is a well-known procedure for the characterization of antennas on near-field ranges without need of measuring the phase. Amplitude information over two surfaces compensates for the lack of phase reference. In this paper we propose the combination of spherical and planar surfaces for the application of the two scans technique, together with the application of Wirtinger Flow, a state-of-the art phase retrieval algorithm with high convergence guarantees. The use of different types of surface adds additional information about the field's degrees of freedom, allowing for smaller separation between acquisition surfaces as compared with the 2-sphere techniques. In addition, an initial estimation for the phase is not required. The phase retrieval process is formulated in terms of the Spherical Wave Expansion (SWE) of the antenna under test. The SWE-to-PWE (Plane Wave Expansion) is utilized in order to process the amplitude field on the planar surface. Results for simulated and measured near-field data are shown to demonstrate the potential capabilities of the proposed technique.
Indoor 3D Spherical Near Field RCS Measurement Facility: A new high resolution method for 3D RCS Imaging
Pierre Massaloux, Thomas Benoudiba-Campanini, Pierre Minvielle, Jean-François Giovannelli, October 2019
Indoor RCS measurement facilities are usually dedicated to the characterization of only one azimuth cut and one elevation cut of the full spherical RCS target pattern. In order to perform more complete characterizations, a spherical experimental layout has been developed at CEA for indoor Near Field monostatic RCS assessment [3]. This experimental layout is composed of a 4 meters radius motorized rotating arch (horizontal axis) holding the measurement antennas while the target is located on a polystyrene mast mounted on a rotating positioning system (vertical axis). The combination of the two rotation capabilities allows full 3D near field monostatic RCS characterization. 3D imaging is a suitable tool to accurately locate and characterize in 3D the main contributors to the RCS. However, this is a non-invertible Fourier synthesis problem because the number of unknowns is larger than the number of data. Conventional methods such as the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA), which consists of data reformatting including zero-padding followed by an inverse fast Fourier transform, provide results of limited quality. We propose a new high resolution method, named SPRITE (for SParse Radar Imaging TEchnique), which considerably increases the quality of the estimated RCS maps. This specific 3D radar imaging method was developed and applied to the fast 3D spherical near field scans. In this paper, this algorithm is tested on measured data from a metallic target, called Mx-14. It is a fully metallic shape of a 2m long missile-like target. This object, composed of several elements is completely versatile, allowing any change in its size, the presence or not of the front and / or rear fins, and the presence or not of mechanical defects, … Results are analyzed and compared in order to study the 3D radar imaging technique performances.
Experimental Validation of Minimum Redundancy Scanning Schemes in PNF Measurements at V band
M A Saporetti, L J Foged, F D'agostino, F Ferrara, C Gennarelli, R Guerriero, D Trenta, October 2019
The planar wide-mesh scanning (PWMS) methodology is based on a non-redundant sampling scheme [1], [2] and is thus without loss of accuracy. It has the potential to enable much faster measurements than standard Planar Near Field (PNF) scanning that is based on denser, regular, equally spaced NF sampling fulfilling Nyquist criteria. In [3], the non-redundant methodology has been validated numerically by simulated measurements on a highly shaped reflector antenna and with actual measurements on a pencil beam antenna in Ku-band and on a navigation antenna in L-band. In this paper, we present the experimental verification of the PWMS methodology, at V band using dedicated PNF measurements of a Standard Gain Horn antenna MVG SGH4000. The results accuracy of the non-redundant methodology has been investigated against Far-Field patterns, implemented by standard scanning methods, by visual comparison, and by computation of the Equivalent Noise Level (ENL). The achieved under-sampling factor is equal to 12, corresponding to similar time reduction in the stepped measurement system employed for the presented validation.
Reduced Aperture Flanged Rectangular Waveguide Probe for Measurement of Conductor Backed Uniaxial Materials
Adam L Brooks, Michael J Havrilla, October 2019
An algorithm is developed for the non-destructive extraction of constitutive parameters from uniaxial anisotropic materials backed by a conductive layer. A method of moments-based approach is used in conjunction with a previously-determined Green function. A dominant-mode analysis is done for rapid comparison of the derived forward model with that of commercially-available software. Finally, laboratory measurements are taken to compare this approach to that of a destructive, high-precision method.
Recent Developments in International Facility Comparison Campaigns
M A Saporetti, L J Foged, A A Alexandridis, Y Alvarez-Lopez, C Culotta-López, B Svensson, I Expósito, F Tercero, M Sierra Castañer, , , , , ,, October 2019
The EurAAP (the European Association on Antennas and Propagation) [1] Measurements working group (WG5), constitutes a framework for cooperation to advance research and development of antenna measurements. An important ongoing task of this group is to sustain the Antenna Measurement Intercomparisons. The comparison of each facility measurement of the same reference antenna in a standard configuration results in important documentation and validation of laboratory expertise and competence, allowing to validate and document the achieved measurement accuracy and to obtain and maintain accreditations like ISO 17025. An additional outcome is the improvement in antenna measurement procedures and protocols in facilities and contributions to standards, which is one of the long-term objectives of the EurAAP WG5. Several participants among Europe but also USA and ASIA have joined the activity. These campaigns will also serve for a new task, recently approved within the WG5, of self-evaluation from comparison of the measurement results. An important ongoing campaign involves a X/Ku/Ka-band high gain reflector antenna MVI-SR40 fed by SH4000 Dual Ridge Horn. In this paper we report the results here for the first time. The medium gain ridge horn, MVI-SH800, equipped with an absorber plate to enhance the correlation in different facilities has been the reference antenna of another campaign. In [2] the preliminary results were shown. In this paper we present the final validation. The comparison is reported plotting the gain/directivity patterns and computing the equivalent noise level and the Birge ratio with respect to the reference pattern obtained taking into account the uncertainty declared by each facility.


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