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Dielectric Positioners for Measurements of Omni-Directional Antennas
With the continued growth of mobile communications and the emergence of wireless LAN and personal area networks (PAN), there is an increased need to accurately measure the antenna properties for omnidirectional antennas and antenna systems. Furthermore, it is very desirable that antenna measurement systems be flexible to support a variety of antenna configurations and form factors. In this paper, we assess the performance of two measurement configurations utilizing dielectric positioners. These configurations comprise a traditional roll-over-azimuth antenna positioner and an arm-overturntable system such as that used in ORBIT/FR’s Advanced Spherical Cellular Near-Field (ASCENT) product. The results show that both configurations offer demonstrable improvements over conventional metallic positioners, and the arm-based system provides the highest accuracy for omnidirectional antennas.
Inaccuracy in Spherical Near Field Antenna Measurements Due to Anechoic Chamber Reflectivity
The need for a well-defined accuracy estimate in antenna measurements requires identification of all possible sources of inaccuracy and determination of their influence on the measured parameters. For anechoic chambers, one important source of inaccuracy is the reflection from the absorbers on walls, ceiling, and floor, which gives rise to so-called stray signals that interfere with the desired signal. These stray signals are usually quantified in terms of the reflectivity level. For near-field measurements, the reflectivity level is not sufficient information for estimation of inaccuracy due to the stray signals since the near-to-far-field transformation of the measured near-field may essentially change their influence. Moreover, the inaccuracies are very different for antennas of different directivity and with different level of sidelobes, and for different parts of the radiation pattern. In this paper, the simulation results of a spherical near-field antenna measurement in an anechoic chamber are presented and discussed. The influence of the stray signals on the directivity at all levels of the radiation pattern is investigated for several levels of the chamber reflectivity and for different antennas. The antennas are modeled by two-dimensional arrays of Huygens' sources that allow calculation of both the exact near-field and the exact far-field. The near-field with added stray signals is then transformed to the far-field and compared to the exact far-field. The copolar and cross-polar directivity patterns are compared at different levels down from the peak directivity.
Low Frequency Spherical Near Field Measurement Facility at CNES
In a conventional manner, a majority of compact ranges are currently used between 2 GHz and 200 GHz. Mechanical stiffness limits compact ranges at high frequency and diffraction effects are dominant at low frequency. However, CNES has installed a single reflector with dedicated serrations to perform accurate measurements between 800 MHz and 2 GHz. These serrations are 2 meters long and minimize the ripple in both amplitude and phase within the quiet zone. In order to further improve its measurement capabilities at lower frequencies, CNES has installed, in co-operation with SATIMO, a spherical near field measurement system directly inside of its compact range building. The goal is to measure antennas within the frequency range 80 MHz – 400 MHz with a relatively good accuracy. The spherical near field measurement facility has been tested and validated with four antennas that had been previously measured in the compact range of CNES and other external ranges. This paper focuses in this smart approach, which allows to extend the lower frequency domain of compact ranges. This paper describes in details the measurement facility, the test and the validation of the system.
Simultaneous Axis Motion Applications in Antenna and Radome Measurements
This paper describes the use of simultaneous axis motion for various antenna, RCS, and radome applications, and the use of off the shelf hardware to support the corresponding measurement requirements. This is particularly relevant to polarization, low reflectivity target characterization, and radome measurements. Specific motion profiles required to accomplish various classes of tests are discussed, along with the implications on the mode of operation of the measurement system in order to achieve the most efficient collection of the required data. These simultaneous axis motion requirements may typically be user defined from the available set of axes composing the positioning system. Evaluation of the speed and real time tracking capability of the multiple axes are examined as they relate to the accuracy of the measurements that are required.
Evaluation of Radome Performance From Cylindrical Near-Field Measurements
This paper describes the installation and implementation of a Cylindrical Near-field Test Facility at Chelton Radomes Ltd, Stevenage, (formerly British Aerospace Systems and Equipment Ltd.), in the UK for the testing of large radome/antenna combinations. Test site commissioning and validation activities to determine measurement accuracy & repeatability for the radome performance parameters of transmission loss and boresight error, are discussed. Test data from actual measurements are presented.
Estimating the Uncertainties Due to Position Errors in Spherical Near-Field Measurements
Probe position errors, specifically the uncertainty in the theta and phi position of the probe on the measurement sphere, are one of the sources of error in the calculated far-field and hologram patterns derived from spherical near-field measurements. Until recently, we have relied on analytical results for planar position errors to provide a guideline for specifying the required accuracy of a spherical measurement system. This guideline is that the angular error should not result in translation along the arc of the minimum sphere of more than ?/100. As a result of recent simulation and analysis, expressions have been derived that relate more specifically to spherical near-field measurements. Using the dimensions of the Antenna Under Test (AUT), its directivity, the radius of the sphere (the minimum sphere) enclosing all radiating surfaces and the frequency we can estimate the errors that will result from a given position error. These results can be used to specify and design a measurement system for a desired level of accuracy and to estimate the measurement uncertainty in a measurement system.
Axial Ratio Errors When Using Linearly Polarized Probes in Planar Near-Field Measurements
For a planar near-field range, it is sometimes convenient to use a linearly polarized probe to measure a circularly polarized antenna. The quality of the circular polarization of the test-antenna is determined by the measured axial ratio. This requires the amplitude and phase from two near-field scans, one scan with the probe polarization oriented horizontally and another vertically. A lateral probe position error between the horizontal and vertical orientations can occur if the probe is not aligned properly with the probe polarization rotator. This particular probe position error affects the accuracy of the axial ratio in the main beam if the beam of the test antenna is not perpendicular to the scan plane. This paper presents analysis and measurement examples that demonstrate the relationship between the errors in the axial ratio and the lateral probe position. It is shown that the axial ratio, within the main beam, is not sensitive to the lateral probe position error when the beam is normal to the scan plane. However, the error in the axial ratio in the main beam can be quite significant with a small lateral probe position error if the antenna beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the scan plane. A simple phase correction algorithm is presented that is useful for measured data from an electrically large aperture.
An Augmented Three-Antenna Probe Calibration Technique for Measuring Probe Insertion Phase
Probe calibration is a prerequisite for performing high accuracy near-field antenna measurements. One convenient technique that has been used with confidence for years consists of using two auxiliary antennas in conjunction with the probe-to-be-calibrated. Inherent to this technique is a calibration of all three antennas. So far the technique has mostly been applied to measure polarization and gain characteristics. It is demonstrated how the technique can be extended to also measure an antenna’s phase-versus-frequency characteristic.
Accurate Determination of a Compact Antenna Test Range Reference Axis and Plane Wave Quality
Highly accurate antenna and payload measurements in antenna test facilities require highly accurate alignment and boresight determination. The Angle of Arrival (AoA) of the plane wave field in the quiet zone of the CCR Compensated Compact Range CCR 75/60 of EADS Astrium GmbH, installed at Alcatel Space in Cannes . France, has been measured using three different methods (optical geometrical determination using theodolites, Radar Cross Section (RCS) maximization, planar scanner phase plane alignment). The proposed paper describes the three methods and the performed measurement campaign and provides the correlation between the resulting angles via a comparison of the results. The achieved absolute worst case values of lower than 0.005° demonstrates the high level of accuracy reached during the campaigns.
Compact Range Performance Effects in Interferometer Testing and Related Statistical Analysis of Field Probe Measurements
This paper describes and discusses relevant performance issues concerning the quiet zone illumination of a baseline interferometer antenna using a compact range system. Typical baseline interferometer antennas are utilized for precision direction finding applications, and are designed on the principle of detecting the incoming phase wave front as a means to determine the direction of arrival of the detected signal. Quiet zone illumination of the antenna using a compact range deviates from the ideal illumination by introducing some levels of amplitude and phase taper and ripple. Unwanted relative differences in the illumination of the individual elements of the interferometer antenna will introduce errors in the subsequent analysis of the direction finding accuracy and precision of the array. Sources of these errors are examined in this paper, and relevant compact range performance trade-offs are discussed to optimize the range. Considerations are given to both utility of the range, as many interferometer antennas are broadband EW type arrays, and thus require single feed, single test broadband measurements, as well as to the accuracy in characterizing the performance of the interferometer over its full operating bandwidth. In addition, this paper discusses the analysis of high precision compact range field probe data, and the subsequent application of relevant statistical parameters to characterize the data. The analysis techniques utilized highlight the important performance features required of the compact range to effectively test baseline interferometers. The implementation of an automated utility is described that applies the relevant corrections, and applies the statistical algorithms, to the data to effectively reduce the data and summarize it in a fashion that provides immediate utility to the field probe test operator.
Compact Antenna Test Facility for Link Antennas
MTI Technology and Engineering Ltd. in Israel has installed an antenna test facility for the development and production testing of communication link antennas. Link antennas are typically high gain, medium size (< 2 ft) and medium to high frequency (10 to 50 GHz), with strict requirements on sidelobes, back-radiation and cross-polarization. Production testing is typically done on the main cuts. The facility is also used for PTMP and WLL antennas down to 2 GHz. This is an ideal requirement for a small size compact range. The ORBIT/FR single reflector compact range with a cylindrical quiet zone of a size 4 x 4 ft (diameter x length) was selected. The performance is compliant to international regulations (e.g. FCC, ETSI, DTI-MPT), and has a cross polarization as low as –40 dB for 0.4-m antennas. The total chamber size is 31 x 18 x 15 ft (L x W x H). The positioner system is roll over model tower over azimuth over lower slide. The instrumentation is Agilent 8530 based. The system was installed and qualified in late 2002. Qualification was performed from 2 to 50 GHz for quiet zone field probing and antenna sidelobe level accuracy testing. A system description, as well as an excerpt of the qualification data are presented in the paper.
Preliminary Investigations of Cohering Distributed Aperture Measurement Data
Preliminary investigations for cohering multiple apertures into a single distributed aperture were performed at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. Data were collected on complex targets in near realtime with two individual HP8510 Network Analyzer systems controlled by a single data acquisition computer as an interferometeric measurement. The data were analyzed and presented for high-accuracy angular resolution by examining the amplitude and phase difference between the two network analyzers. In addition, further upcoming tests on the Georgia Tech Research Institute far-field range will be outlined, showing how both measured angular resolution improvement and power-aperture gain product will be collected over a wideband frequency range.
The AFRL RF Materials Measurement Laboratory
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Materials Measurement Laboratory (MML) is a state of the art facility for the characterization of the electromagnetic properties of materials at radio frequencies. The two-fold mission of the MML is to provide material characterization services to AFRL and to conduct R&D to develop or improve RF material characterization technology. The goal of the MML is to perform—or develop the ability to perform—material property measurements to the highest degree of accuracy possible with state of the art test equipment. Characterization measurements range from determination of RF reflection or transmission loss to the extraction of the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of material samples. The MML has the ability to characterize material samples from below 100 MHz to above 18 GHz over material test sample temperatures ranging from – 150oC to greater than 1000oC. While maintaining capabilities using ‘standard’ material measurement techniques (circular coax and rectangular waveguide), the MML’s most highly utilized system is based on the GTRI focused arch apparatus. The MML also employs resonant cavity fixtures, open-ended coax probes and impedance meters to provide a capability to evaluate material samples of a wide variety of shapes and sizes.
A Broadband Materials Measurements Technique Building Upon the Implementation of Coaxial Probes
A Technique is presented that allows for broadband nondestructive material electrical parameter measurements. Electrical parameters of a large number of materials are not readily available over extremely broad bandwidths (multiple octaves as an example). This information is required for accurate modeling of microwave circuits and antenna(s). These parameters consist of complex permittivity and complex permeability that result in loss due to the types and thickness of materials to be used. A Method is required that allows for fast, accurate and low cost measurements of the materials under test. The technique of using dual coaxial probes provides a solution that can be applied to numerous materials including thin films. It takes advantage of the full frequency extent of the network analyzer. This measurement uses dual coaxial probes, as compared to the implementation of cavity resonators, coaxial lines, waveguides and free space measurements, and performs the measurement in a 2-port calibration procedure. The resultant analytical solution is a transcendental equation with complex arguments. The Coaxial probes are described and can be easily made with available components where the only limitation is the valid component frequency bandwidth. Several material examples show the expected accuracy versus frequency range of this measurement technique.
Extreme Accuracy Tracking Gimbal for Radome Measurements
Modern radome measurements often involve scanning the radome in front of its antenna while the antenna is actively tracking an RF signal. Beam deflections caused by the radome are automatically tracked by the antenna and its associated positioning system, which is typically a two-axis (pitch & yaw) gimbal. The motion required to accurately track the beam can be very demanding of the gimbal. High structural stiffness, zero drivetrain backlash, and extremely accurate angle measurement are all necessary qualities for radome beam deflection measurement. This paper describes a new, advanced, two-axis gimbal that embodies those qualities. The new gimbal incorporates direct-drive motors to achieve zero backlash. The motors are mounted directly to the rotating gimbal elements, thereby eliminating the usual causes of drivetrain compliance. Rated torque of the motors is not high, and the antenna is therefore fully counterweighted. Each of two optical encoders is mounted on the same rotating gimbal element as its associated motor. The encoders are directly mounted; no flexible coupling is used. The antenna is mounted to those same rotating elements. Antenna positioning error due to windup of the structure and drivetrain is virtually eliminated. Eccentricity of the encoder disk, which is the primary source of direct-drive encoder errors, is adjusted by virtue of a remarkable in situ process.
Array Element Phase Determination From Time-Domain Measurements
A technique is presented for determining the insertion phase of array elements directly from time domain measurements. It is shown that the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) commonly used in swept frequency time delay measurements may yield unreliable phase results. A compensation to the IDFT is proposed which allows the phase of an array element to be accurately estimated from time domain data without gating and without taking a second DFT. The technique is applied to determine the insertion attenuation and phase of the elements in a linear L-band phased array. Compared to conventional array calibrations, the removal of extraneous range reflections implicit to the time domain technique resulted in a significant improvement in measurement accuracy.
How Far is Far Enough for System-Level Testing of DF Interferometer Arrays
The restriction of ? 2D2 R = is a commonly employed criterion for the minimum required separation between the range antenna and the Antenna Under Test (AUT) in a Far-Field (FF) antenna test range. However, this criterion, which is suitable for most common and simple cases, may not be adequate for more specialized test applications. Direction-finding (DF) interferometer antenna array testing is one such example. In a DF interferometer antenna array the phase difference between any two antennas serves as an Angle-Of-Arrival (AOA) discriminator for the radiation impinging on the array. At the system level, the array must be tested in order to calibrate its AOA discrimination function and to evaluate its accuracy, which, in many cases is done using a FF test range. In this paper, interferometer array FF testing is analyzed and an expression is developed for estimating the required separation between the range antenna and the array under test, in order to satisfy certain angle discrimination accuracy requirements. The results are compared with the common FF criterion and with restrictions imposed by other considerations.
Aspects of Antenna Pattern Characterization of an L-Band Space Radiometer
This paper deals with different aspects of the on-ground antenna pattern characterization of the MIRAS radiometer for ESA’s SMOS mission. Various technical challenges of the project are briefly described. Special attention is given to the effect of multiple reflections between the antenna under test and the measurement probe. A series of antenna measurements of the MIRAS radiometer antennas is now on-going at the DTU-ESA Facility. The main objectives of these are to investigate the accuracy of the forthcoming antenna characterization, to find solutions to the already known problems, to identify new possible difficulties, and to establish an optimal measurement strategy, which should allow for the tight error requirements and minimize the overall time of the measurement campaign.
Far-Field Bistatic RCS From Near-Field Measurements
Bistatic radar cross sections of targets are computed from field measurements on a cylindrical scan surface placed in the near field of the target. The measurements are carried out in a radio anechoic chamber with an incident plane-wave field generated by a compact-range reflector. The accuracy of the computed target far field is significantly improved by applying asymptotic edge-correction techniques that compensate for the effect of truncation at the top and bottom edges of the scan cylinder. The measured field on the scan cylinder is a “total” near field that includes the incident field, the field of the support structure, and the scattered field of the target. The background subtraction method determines an approximation for the scattered near field on the scan cylinder from two measurements of total near fields. The far fields of metallic sphere and rod targets are computed from experimental near-field data and the results are verified with reference solutions.
Cam RCS Dual-Cal Standard, The
We introduce a new calibration standard geometry for use in a static RCS measurement system that can simultaneously offer multiple “exact” RCS values based on a simple azimuth rotation of the object. Called the “cam,” the new calibration device eliminates the problem of frequency nulls exhibited by other resonantsized cal devices by shifting the nulls through azimuthal rotation. Furthermore, the “cam” facilitates the use of dual-calibration RCS measurements without the need to mount a second cal standard. The “cam” is practical to fabricate and deploy; it is conducting, composed of flat and constant-radius singly-curved surfaces, and is compatible with standard pylon rotator mounts. High-accuracy computational results from moment-method modeling are presented to show the efficacy of the new standard.
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